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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 抗病及耐逆境十字花科蔬菜品種培育及生產技術改進
計畫名稱(英文) Cultivation improvement and breeding for disease resistance and stress tolerance in Cruciferous vegetables
文獻分類 育種-其它(含品種推廣)
計畫編號 105農科-9.5.1-子-N1
計畫主辦人 謝明憲
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會臺南區農業改良場義竹工作站
全程計畫年 2016年 ~ 2016年
中文關鍵字 逆境;芥藍;耐熱;甘藍;不結球白菜;黑腐病;青花菜;十字花科;花椰菜;蘿蔔;雄不稔性;育種;早熟;種間雜交;分子標誌
英文關鍵字 Stress;Chinese Kale;Heat Tolerance;Cabbage;Non-heading Chinese Cabbage;Black rot;Broccoli;Cruciferous;Cauliflower;Radish;Male Sterility;Breeding;Early Maturity;Interspecific Hybridization;Molecular Marker
中文摘要 一、十字花科蔬菜類型多樣,是人類最主要食用蔬菜,除提供人類所需一些營養元素,也是農民經濟收入的重要來源之一。近年來由於氣候變遷引發生物及非生物逆境,已造成十字花科蔬菜穩定產之困難度增加,因此迫切需要育成耐熱早熟的品種,包含不結球白菜、芥藍及芥菜等;並開發具進口替代,耐逆境(耐濕或耐雨)及耐儲藏性強品種,包含青花菜、甘藍及蘿蔔等;面對臺灣氣候高溫多濕,更迫切需要育成抗(耐)黑腐病甘藍類品種,減少使用農藥防治,以利建立環境友善之生產模式。在種苗生產則要求提升採種純度及降低採種風險,需要開發國產自有雄不稔性品種,進而提高產量及有利於智慧財產權保護。 二、105年度主要研究工作項目計有:1.耐逆境品種選育:(1)青花菜:自交系純化、早期自交世代試交組合與選拔(台中場)。(2)甘藍:A.耐熱暨早熟,適合外銷生產用圓球形甘藍雜交品系之耐淹水性或耐濕性程度檢定(台南場);B甘藍耐熱早生與耐貯圓球形育種材料分離材料自交系純化、早期世代試交組合品系試驗(台中場)。 (3)芥藍:A.薹用芥藍:(A)耐熱自交系之培育進行S4世代耐熱選拔、自交授粉與留種繁殖(台中場);(B)薹用芥藍新品系區域試驗、植物性狀檢定作業(台中場)B.葉用芥藍:(A)耐熱自交系之培育進行S5~F6世代耐熱選拔、自交授粉與留種繁殖(鳳試所);(B)再次進行夏季耐熱優良母系評估,篩選耐熱之優良母系並各別進行母系內純化,以混合選拔法進行開放受粉形成品系(桃園場);(C)進行至少2個耐熱雜交組合及組合力檢定(鳳試所);(D)葉用芥藍品系試驗(台中場)。(4)小白菜:A.小白菜新品系品種(系)比較試驗(桃園場);B.新品系性狀檢定,整理資料命名申請(桃園場)。(5)芥菜:A.蒐集10份芥菜種原,評估夏季生長表現,選取優良種原進行雜交育種等後續工作(桃園場)。B.小芥菜6個雜交組合雜交後代單株套袋令其自交,以獲 得自交種子(桃園場)。C.在6個四川芥菜F2族群中,分別選拔優良單株進行純化。D.在6個包心芥菜F2族群中,分別選拔優良單株進行純化,獲得S1自交第一代種子(桃園場)。 (6)蘿蔔:進行蘿蔔耐熱品系提出品種權申請作業(台中場)。2.抗黑腐病品種選育:(1).抗病自交系進行雜交組合;(2).抗不同黑腐病生理小種十字花科蔬菜自交4-5代(鳳試所)。3.雄不稔品系選育:1.利用分子標誌輔助育成芥藍細胞質雄不稔系;2.轉移雄不稔性至花椰菜及青花菜;3.篩選輔助回交花椰菜之分子標誌(農試所)。期望未來藉有耐逆境及抗病品種育成與推廣,不稔性品種應用,以期提升採種效率,增加農民生產收益及提升十字花科蔬菜產業之國際競爭力。
英文摘要 一、The organs of various Cruciferous crops are important vegetables for human consumption. Their nutrients are vital for health and maintenance of the body, and cruciferous vegetable production is the most important source of income for farmers. Recently, the biotic and abiotic stresses caused by climatic change result in stable production of cruciferous vegetable to be more and more difficult. Due to this, it is urgent to breed heat tolerant and early maturing varieties including non-heading Chinese cabbage, Chinese kale and mustard. For achieving import substitution, it is necessary to develop stress (humidity and rain) tolerant varieties that can last longer in storage, including cabbage, broccoli and radish. To reduce pesticide use and be environmental friendly in the high humidity and warm environment of Taiwan, it is important to breed black rot resistant varieties of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. In order to increase the seed purity and reduce the risk of breeding material lost in seed production, it is necessary to develop domestic male sterile varieties of Cruciferous vegetables. Furthermore, the use of male sterile varieties in hybrid seed production can increase seed yield and benefit intellectual property protection. 二、In 2016, this project plans to: 1. Breed for stress tolerance and early maturity (1) Broccoli: purification, selection, and cross test of heat tolerant inbred lines. (2) Cabbage: evaluation of the early-maturing and heat tolerant characteristics of two varieties of cabbage in the high temperature environment of summer, and purification and selection of heat tolerant and longer storage time of ball shaped inbred lines. (3) Chinese kale: purification and selection of heat tolerant inbred lines of sprouts, regional trials and botanic characteristics investigation of new varieties of sprouts, and selection and regional trials of heat tolerant inbred lines of leaves. (4) Non-heading Chinese cabbage: regional trials of new variety rights. (5) Mustard: collection and conservation of germplasm, purification, selection and regional trials of inbred lines of leafy, heading and hot pickle mustard. (6) Radish: application of new heat-tolerant variety right. 2. Breed for black rot resistance (1) cross test of black rot resistant lines, (2) purification, selection and trials of inbred lines on different races of black rot resistance.3. Breed for male sterile lines (1) breed for kale cytoplasmic male sterile lines by using a molecular marker assistance. (2) transference of male sterile genes from kale to broccoli and cauliflower. (3) screening for molecular makers of male sterile traits in cauliflower. In this project, it is expected that stress tolerant, black rot resistant and male sterile varieties of Cruciferous vegetables will be developed and released to farmers. We hope to enhance the efficiency of seed production, and increase the income of farmers' vegetable production and international competitiveness of the Cruciferous vegetable industry by using new varieties.
其他研究人員 蕭政弘 蔣順惠 許秀惠 林子凱 陳葦玲 王三太 林照能 林楨祐
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