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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 強化亞熱帶果樹品種選育及栽培技術改進
計畫名稱(英文) "Improvement of variety, cultural practice andpostharvest handling of subtropical fruits. "
文獻分類 育種-其它(含品種推廣)
計畫編號 105農科-9.4.2-子-C1
計畫主辦人 唐佳惠
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所嘉義分所園藝系
全程計畫年 2016年 ~ 2016年
中文關鍵字 麻豆紅柚;催花;花穗;荔枝;儲藏;果實品質;品種;花芽形成;柑橘;無子;不時花;龍眼;採收後處理;作物改良;早熟;輻射育種;區域試驗;裂果;健康種苗;新興品種;栽培技術;椪柑;酪梨;雜交育種;焦核;果肉乾粒化;砧木試驗;葉面施肥
英文關鍵字 Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. ‘‘Matou Hongyu’;flower forcing;inflorescence;litchi;storage;Fruit Quality;cultivar;flower formation;citrus;seedless;off-season flower;longan;Postharvest;crop improvement;precocious;irradiation breeding;regional test;fruit
中文摘要 荔枝與龍眼 育種-選育穩產、大果小核、異產期、豐產、穩定或耐貯運之荔枝品系,並多元開發荔枝新品種市場區位,以提高荔枝產業競爭力。選育極早熟(產期在4月)焦核(無核)化品種,分散荔枝產期高峰,提升荔枝市場平均價格。 可提升荔枝優質化果品,提高市場競爭力,延長荔枝供果期,增加外銷市場競爭力。並改善荔枝栽培管理技術,加速新品種推廣,提升產業價值並嘉惠農民。 龍眼栽培-同時調查龍眼的生長與發育,並建立龍眼疏花序標準作業流程及關鍵技術,以提高龍眼品質,強化產業之競爭力。 柑橘 品種改良與推廣-柑橘為台灣栽培面積最廣且產值最高的果樹,然而,許多柑橘種類易有嚴重的生理障礙或病害,使售價受限導致柑橘農友的收益無法獲得改善。有鑑於此,確保柑橘農友能獲得最新栽培關鍵技術、取得正確而有用的產業資訊等均十分重要,並使農友據以隨時調整管理模式,提升農友在競爭市場中存活。經由雜交育種、新品種區域試驗及輻射育種選拔具少籽、大果型、不同產期及高品質等特性之新品種。並進行雜交後代(及放射線照射株)之觀察及培育,評估縮短桶柑幼年性之栽培方式。砧木試驗探討主要砧木對各柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,做為栽培選用之依據,以提高生產力與品質。雜交育種及輻射育種選拔具少籽、大果型、不同產期及高品質等特性之新品種。砧木試驗探討主要砧木對各柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,做為栽培選用之依據,以提高生產力與品質。新興品種試驗,主要探討不知火、Ortanique及6個柳橙品系生長、產量與品質之差異,做為栽培選用之依據。本研究同時也進行柑橘種原收集、種原頂梢嫁接脫毒並期獲得無病毒成活苗。經由頂梢嫁接 (STG)技術,可除去種原中的病毒,並重新獲得無病毒苗,之後再定植於溫室內以生產健康接穗供產業利用。 柑橘栽培-椪柑為中部地區重要果樹,採收期由11月中旬至12月底,經貯藏的椪柑亦在農曆新年前販售完畢。因此為調節椪柑產期,利用椪柑具有產生夏季不時花之能力,生產2、3月的果實。但不時花產生比率容易隨環境氣候改變而有所增減,故利用勒束法及化學藥劑等方法,抑制營養生長,促使養分蓄積,以提高7月抽萌之夏季不時花比率,供生產隔年2月果實,調節產期。並探討造成椪柑果肉乾粒化之因子,並調查環境、栽培因子和樹體生理特性對乾粒化比率的影響。在文旦方面,擬進行採收集貨及後續的處理流程等,對果實品質之影響。而裂果為柑橘常見生理障礙,現有栽培品種中以茂谷柑發生裂果之比率最高。本計畫擬以誘變、芽條突變及雜交育種方式,選育本土無子柑橘,並探討土壤水分含量及疏果對茂谷柑裂果之影響。此外,本計畫亦進行文旦花期肥培管理技術,為了建立麻豆紅柚疏果時期、套袋材料及採收適期,評估對著果率及品質之影響,以麻豆紅柚採收適期、疏果及套袋等技術,以穩定產量及果實品質,並提供農民實際生產應用。 柑橘採收後處理-針對重要柚類品種如麻豆文旦、麻豆紅柚及麻豆白柚建立針對儲藏溫度、溼度與果實品質、儲架壽命及病害發生等採後處理基本資料庫,以提昇其採後品質及貯架壽命,並提昇農友經濟效益。 酪梨:選育出與有別於現有產期,並具優良食味、質地、耐炭疽病之優良酪梨品系,生產優質成熟果實之品種,避免農民搶收以提高酪梨品質及導正產銷秩序。
英文摘要 Litchi and longan breeding-We aimed to select litchi and/or longan lines, which are hight quality, aboudant and stable on yield, and have different harvest season from major commercial cultivars in Taiwan. Novel cultivars are expected to be obtained, and will promote elavation of industrial values of these two fruits. In last lychee breeding project, there is one precocious cultivar was released for farmers (Tainung No.6), the harvest season is in April. However, if character of aborted seed or seedless can be induced into precocious cultivar, it will keep better competition in the market in the future. There are six combination of cross- breeding in this project, the precocious parent are Tainung No.6 and 92K(W)2, the parent of aborted seed(or seedless seed) are Nan Daw Seedless, Kwangtung Seedless and NMC- 2. Longan cultivation-We also investigate the growth and development of longan. To boost the competitiveness of the longan industry and to set up a delicacy longan cultivation practices, the growth of the shoot in prunning time are investigated to clearify when is the most proper and efficient time for longan pruning and to integrate the flower trimming, dwarfing pruning and regular yearly pruning together. Citrus breeding-Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, also most in quantities, most valuable fruit trees in Taiwan. But there are many kinds of citrus, have more serious physical barriers or disease consequently the prices of them are limited and the farm income of the citrus farmers wouldn't be able to be improved. Therefore, it's really necessary for the owners of the citrus farms to hold the key point of getting the latest cultivation techniques, correct and useful information to adapt their management so that they can survive in market competition. Citrus cultivar improvement by means of crossbreeding, irradiation and regional trials of newly-introduced cultivars were conducted. The objective of breeding includes fewer seeds, larger fruit size, different maturity season and better fruit quality. The rootstock trials investigate the influences of rootstocks on horticultural characteristics of major citrus scion cultivars including Ponkan, Tankan, Satsuma mandarin and kumquat for improving fruit quality and productivity. Regional trial for introduced cultivars including Shiranui, Ortanique and six orange lines was planted in main producing areas and investigated their growth adaptation, production and fruit quality. The citrus germplasm collection and utilization by technique of shoot-tip grafting for obtaining foundation stocks free of viruses. By using Shoot-Tip Grafting (STG) method to clean up the materials and reestablished the citrus germplasm collection in screen-houses.The influence of different virusfree citrus shoot-tip grafting plantlets planting to field. Citrus cultivation- 'Ponkan' mandarin is an important fruit industry in central Taiwan, and harvested period is from middle November to December. However, citrus can produce off-season flowers in summer, and these off-season fruit can be harvested in next February. But the climate will affect the percentage of off-season flower formation. Thus, horticultural technology and chemicals are used to inhibit vegetative growth and promote nutrition accumulation may increase the percentage of off-season flower in July and harvest the fruit on next February. In order to attempt discussion the factors of resulting ponkan mandarin fruit granulation, and investigation the effect of environmental, cultivation factors and physiological characteristics. Fruit splitting is a physiological disorder of citrus and the number of fruits affected is exceedingly high in murcott tangor. The objective of this project is to obtain local seedless citrus by induced mutation, spontaneous mutation and hybridization. It will also examine the effects of soil water content and fruit thinning on fruit splitting of murcott tangor. The purpose of this project is to improve cultivation techniques of wentan pomelo by applying fertilizers during the blossom season. In addition,to set up a high-yield and high fruit quality practice of Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. ‘Matou Hongyu’ for farmers, the time of fruit thining and harvest are investigated and also the materials of bagging were also examine to improve the industry. Citrus postharvest-To establish a good postharvest procedure to manage the pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. ‘Matou Wentan’, Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. ‘Matou Hongyu’ and Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. ‘Matou Peiyu’) under different stress on sales time, we investigate the different temeperatures on the effect of fruit quality, shelf life and the incidence of common postharvest disease to build a postharvest database for further innovation of postharvest techniques. Avocado- The avocado lines adapted to local climate, having good flavor, higher crude fat content are also the targets in the project. Potential lines are selected from senetic recombinated seedlings created by artificial pollination or open pollination.
其他研究人員 "張哲瑋 蔡惠文 楊儒民 陳盟松 張汶肇 劉啟祥 施伯明 張嵐雁 方信秀 陳祈男 李文立 "
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