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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 育苗與造林技術
計畫名稱(英文) Technology of cultivation and reforestation in tree species
文獻分類 播種與育苗 其它
計畫編號 105農科-12.1.2-子-G1
計畫主辦人 陳舜英
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會林業試驗所育林組
全程計畫年 2016年 ~ 2016年
中文關鍵字 母樹林;生長表現;牛樟;混農林業;菇木樹種;種子層積;微氣候;精英樹選拔;土壤管理;藥用植物;種子儲藏性質;種子苗培育;雜交桉;雜交泡桐;病蟲害;山坡地;種子發芽;遺傳基因變異分析;施肥;種子直播;種子園;簡單序列重複;苗圃;種子休眠;瓊崖海棠;造林;林業生產專區;屏蔽作物;瘠劣地;永續經營;蓮葉桐
英文關鍵字 seed production stand;growth Performance;Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay.;agroforestry;tree species for growing shiitake;seed stratification;microclimate;selection of plus trees;soil management;medicinal plants;seed Storage Behavior;seedling cultivation;<
中文摘要 一、林業生產專區建立之研究 (一)建立造林樹種健康林苗生產專區(1/4) 本計畫將制定造林樹種育苗作業規範,主要目的是生產品質優良的苗木,使苗木能成功栽種野外,成活率提高,生長快速,能與雜草競爭,減少初期的除草和補植費用。苗木品質好壞包含種質遺傳和苗木實體二方面,因此我們的作業規範就要認真地考慮種子的來源,以及改善苗圃作業方式,提昇苗木品質。 (二)建立經濟樹種永續利用的林業生產專區(1/4) 台灣木材消費量年約500萬m3,菇蕈用材約35萬噸,多仰賴進口,產品產值超過600億元以上。政府從2013年起在休耕地推動短期樹種造林政策,預定造林後6-10年開始伐採造林樹種為相思樹、杜英、楓香與桉樹。林務局預估造林6年後可採收57噸/ha的原木,林試所為因應政策達成目標,在2011年開始建立短期樹種造林與育種試驗,共造林10公頃,預定在2015年起開始陸續伐採,驗證短期樹種生產潛力。根據目前造林資料,此一目標頗難達成,除非選擇適當樹種造林在具有土壤硬盤與高容積密度的休耕地,以及發展全株利用。農民想獲得最佳利潤經營方式是獲得高價值的合板用材,也就是具有末端直徑大於25 cm的原木。剩餘的小徑材作為菇木粉,枝葉萃取精油或萃取加工成機能性食品。我們已經在苗栗建立9個短伐期樹種造林示範區,以不同栽植密度與樹種混植。本計畫將以此示範區為基礎建構良好的育林技術與經營體系以生產多用途產品。吸引更多農民投入造林,更多不同產業包括造林業、合板業與生技業投資,以逐漸凝聚產業群落,進而形成林業生產專區。 (三)短伐期經濟林造林地及苗圃之土壤管理及合理施肥研究(1/4) 台灣地區之苗圃對於土壤與苗木生長的相關資料極為缺乏,用於容器育苗之土壤大多為由外購買,並未進行檢測即用於栽培苗木,故對於苗圃土壤檢測項目及栽植土壤施肥及改良之技術是一亟待建立之技術。且土壤施肥使用化學肥料過多會造成土壤酸化,並影響到植物的生長,長期施用草木灰分,對土壤的化學性質,特別是重金屬和微量元素的累積和有效性將會增加,此些措施勢必會影響苗圃土壤水的水化學,藉由苗圃水化學之監測可建立合理的施肥技術。另外,短伐期經濟林造林地應以符合生態原則之永續經營技術進行,然為達經營目標,人工林的施肥為必然之手段,故如何應用土壤管理技術將造林地之施肥導向符合生態永續經營之目標亦為造林地亟需建立之技術。 二、重要造林樹種健康苗培育之研究 (一)重要造林樹種種子發芽與苗木品質之研究(3/4) 台灣重要的造林樹種約有60種,利用種子繁殖苗木是主要的方法,然其中部分樹種種子有休眠性,不容易發芽,需要先進行溫度處理,或藥劑處理,或割破種皮處理,以解除種子休眠,提高種子發芽率和發芽速率。降低育苗成本和提高苗木品質是林業人員努力追求的目標,種子直播的育苗作業可以降低育苗成本,節省經費,但若不了解種子的發芽特性,種子直播容器之作業方式是無效的。本計畫目的是(一)採集殼斗科、樟科和其他科的種子,進行種子促進發芽試驗,了解種子在何種溫度處理下能解除其休眠性,(二)比較直播育苗及種子先在育苗箱發芽然後移植容器的作業方式,調查分析樹苗生長、品質及費用等,以達省工育苗。 (二)牛樟種子苗育苗造林體系之建立(4/4) 牛樟 (Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay.) 是最被看好的台灣原生造林樹種,其用材更是生產牛樟芝的必然材料,然其野生種子採獲極不易,且種子的生產控制、採收、處理、發芽方法與最佳儲藏條件卻仍未被正式研究發表過,無法藉由適當的種子儲藏作業來達到育苗作業上的調節供需,又常因發芽技術無法掌握而影響到其育苗率。本計畫目的為:(1)生產牛樟優良種子及增加產量的技術方法。(2)牛樟果實採收及種子處理的最佳方法。(3)牛樟種子具有相當程度的休眠,研究並提供快速解除其休眠的技術方法,使播種後能在短期內整齊發芽,以降低育苗成本並提高育苗率。(4)牛樟種子的最佳儲藏條件,使種子可達其最大儲藏壽命,以調節育苗供需。(5)牛樟種子苗省工育苗體系。(6)牛樟實生苗與扦插苗之比較造林試驗。 (三)台灣與日本海岸樹種種原蒐集與生長試驗之研究(4/5) 本計畫為林業試驗所與日本森林總合研究所合作研究之海岸樹種,瓊崖海棠精英樹選拔、採種、育苗及野外栽種,以瞭解分佈於台灣與日本石垣島和西表島等地區之瓊崖海棠各種原間之生長性狀差異。為瞭解島嶼間族群遺傳基因分化及族群表現型差異,也將在台灣及日本石垣島與宮古島之各族群採樣,進行遺傳變異分析研究。另外,有關族群遺傳分析研究將增加蓮葉桐和銀葉樹二樹種,以適應多種立地環境,因應未來氣候變遷。 (四)藥用植物種源蒐集及利用(2/2) 本研究擬篩選已經過科學研究驗證具有某些藥效化合物的原生植物,收集其種源,並建立野外基因庫。工作項目包括:調查收集原生藥用植物;規劃設置藥用植物野外基因庫;進行物種培育、種原生態監測、植栽及園區維護管理;以及藥用植物在病蟲害防治應用研究。預期效益包括建立原生藥用植物野外基因庫,並評估開發天然防病蟲生物製劑之可行性。 三、逆境區造林技術開發之研究 (一)太麻里海岸試驗林瘠劣地造林技術之研究(2/3) 近年來由於全球暖化效應,造成全球氣候變遷,雨水分配不均,各地引起極端氣候乾旱或洪水。如此極端的氣候亦造成台灣地區之河川下游流域遭受土石流危害,使得沖蝕地區之土壤劣化,造成植物難以自然復育。為解決瘠劣地之植生復育工作,需進行相關造林樹種生長適應之研究工作,以了解此種逆境造林之困境及造林技術。太麻里海岸試驗林因98年遭受莫拉克風災危害,造成試驗林土壤劣化,形成土壤結構以石礫及砂石為主之新層土,屬於造林非常困難之瘠劣地,因此本研究計畫於在此惡劣的林地環境下,計畫篩選生長快速及適應佳(耐旱及耐貧瘠)的造林樹種,並分析土壤理化性質及監測微環境之變化,了解瘠劣地的造林困境及增進造林技術為本計畫之目標。 (二)山坡地混農林業之永續經營監測與推廣(3/4) 混農林業可兼顧農民收益與自然保育,值得借鑑以解決國內山坡地受短期農作濫墾導致破壞水土保持的長年問題,因此我們需要了解國內混農林業永續經營之效益,取得各界人士之共識,並累積更多相關知識以利推廣。本計畫將持續調查山坡地混農林業之農林作物生長,並針對混植林木之主要蟲害進行調查及提供管理建議。未來將了解國內相關團體對山坡地混農林業發展之想法,並提供可行且符合社會期待之方式來推廣混農林業。
英文摘要 一、Study on the building of forest product area (一)Building the Product Area of Healthy Seedlings (1/4) The goal of this project will to establish a cultivation standard operating procedure of tree species and the nursery managers will follow the procedure to produce quality seedlings. High quality seedlings have a higher survival percentage and faster growth in the field than poor quality seedlings. Fast growth allows a seedling to outcompete weeds and reduces the initial labor costs of establishment. Thus, good seedling quality is the basis for tree planting success. Seedling quality has two main aspects. The first is the genetic quality or the source of the seeds. The second is seedlings’ physical condition when they are in nursery. Improving genetic quality of seedlings requires a long-term strategy of seed selection, while improving the physical quality can be accomplished in just one or two years. (二)Establishment of sustainable forestry production area of economical tree species (1/4) The wood consumption in Taiwan is about 5 million m3, and the inoculated log consumption is 350,000 tons a year. Most of these wood cost more than 60 billion NT dollars relies on import. To meet the requirement of industry, the police of reactivation fallow ground by planting tree species with 6-10 year-rotation period, such as Acacia confusa, Elaeocarpus sylvestris, Liquidambar formosana, and Eculyptus spp., was conducted by government in 2013. Taiwan Forest Bureau estimated that 57 tons/ha of log will be harvested after planting 6 years. To evaluate the goal attainable, we established 10 ha plantation trials in farmland to estimate the growth potential for these tree spp. in 2011. Based on present afforestation data, we found it is difficult to reach the goal, unless plant right species in fallow ground which soil has a hardpan and higher bulk density, and try to use every part of whole trees. The best management to earn profit for famers is to obtain more volume of logs with end diameter more than 25 cm which can be made of plywood. The smaller timber can provide for inoculated log, while branches for producing essential oils or extracting to be functional food. We have established a 5-ha demo plantation in Miaoli where planted 9 tree species with different planting densities and mixed different species. This project try to do the better silvicultural techniques and management to obtain more multipurpose products. More profit from the valuable products, more farmers afforest, more companies such as deforestation, lumbering, and biotech invest. An industrial cluster might be formed gradually, and become a forestry production area. (三)Soil management and rational fertilization of short rotation afforestation and nurseries (1/4) Soils are always purchase from commercial products in forest nursery, Taiwan. Tree seedlings are not normal growing and developing because those soils are not detected before purchase. It is important to establish the technology of soil test and fertilize. We used to use chemical fertilizers and it’s the main effect to decrease the soil pH value and the microelements and heavy metals will accumulate due to long-term fertilize. There will control the soil conditions through soil properties and soil water monitor. In addition, the short rotation afforestation should operate on ecology principles. It is urgency to establish soil and fertilize manage technology when the fertilizers are need in artificial forest, and orient them to sustainable-ecological purposes. 二、Studies of healthy seedlings cultivation from important planting species (一)Study on seed germination, cultivation and seedling quality of important plantation trees (3/4) The important planting trees are about 60 species. Using seed propagation to cultivate seedlings is major method. However, some tree seeds have dormancy and germinate poorly. Pretreatments with temperature controlling or chemical treating or seed coat scarifying break seed dormancy and increase seed germination and rate. The decrease of cultivation cost and increase of seedlings quality are goal for nursery man. Seeds directly placed in containers instead using emerged seeds and transplanting into containers can reduce cost, but it is ineffective if characterization of seed germination and dormancy are not understood. The objectives were (1) to collect seeds in the family of Fagaceae, Lauraceae and other families, and test various temperatures to break seed dormancy and enhance germination, (2) to compare the seedling growth, seedling quality and cultivation cost between direct seeding and emerged seeds that are transplanted to containers, and finally the operation can reach a labor saving and reduce cost in nursery management. (二)Establishing a Seedling Cultivation and Afforestation System of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (4/4) Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. is a native species with great potential for afforestation in Taiwan, and wood of C. kanehirae can be used to cultivate Antrodia cinnamomea. Wild seeds of C. kanehirae, however, are really difficult to collect; besides, such entire research as seed production, seed collection, seed handling, germination methods, and the optimal storage conditions of this species, has been not formally published yet. Thus, it is not workable to satisfy seedling demand and supply by applying appropriate seed storage. Still, the germination technique is not easily available so as to affect the seedling cultivation rate of this species. The goals of this study are: (1) to establish a procedure to produce seeds of C. kanehirae with good quality and quantity, (2) to offer the optimal method of fruit collection and seed handling of C. kanehirae, (3) to give a method for breaking seed dormancy in order to quickly germinate after sowing as well as to decrease the cost of seedling cultivation and increase the seedling cultivation rate of C. kanehirae, (4) to find out the optimal seed storage conditions and estimate the best longevity in order to regulate seedling demand and supply of C. kanehirae, (5) to efficiently establish seedling cultivation system of C. kanehirae, and (6) to compare growth performances of seedlings and cutting propagation of C. kanehirae for afforestation. (三)Studies on germplasm collection and seedling growth test of coastal trees between Taiwan and Japan (4/5) The aim of this project is a collaborative research in coastal tree research between Taiwan Forestry Research Institute (TFRI) and Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI) in Japan. The first coastal tree we select is Calophyllum inophyllum. The first objectives is to select wind tolerant plus trees among Taiwan, Iriomote island and Ishigaki island, and to collect seeds and cultivate seedlings. These seedlings will be planted at coastal area, and seedlings survival and growth will be investigated. These data with growth difference and wind tolerance will be determined. The second objective is to analyze genetic variation among Calophyllum inophyllum populations among Taiwan, Iriomote island and Ishigaki island. The analyzing data will include genetic diversity within populations (islands), genetic differentiation and phylogeography among populations (islands). Besides, to adapt to various regional environmental and future climate change, the other two coastal species, Hernandia nymphiifolia (Hernandiaceae) and Heritiera littoralis (Sterculiaceae), will also to analyze genetic variation among and within populations. (四)Collection and application in medicinal plants (2/2) This study would select native plant's species that have been scientifically validated. We collect its provenance and the establishment of the wild gene pool. Our works have that collecting native species of medicinal plants, planning in ex situ gene pool, planting, monitering, and management in plants and gene gardens, and applications in pest prevention and control of medicinal plants. The benefits are expected that establishment in ex situ gene pool of native medicinal species and evaluation in biological products about natural pest prevention. 三、Study on Developing Forestation Technologies in Stressed Areas (一)A study of afforestation technology on coastal infertile land in Taimalee (2/3) The effect of global warming has caused global climate changes, such as the amount and pattern of precipitation and resulting in drought or heavy rainfall. Such extreme weather will easily cause debris flows that are frequent phenomenon in Taiwan. As a result, the areas become infertile and plants can hardly grow there. In order to solve the problem, we need to conduct a research about how to improve afforestation technologies in infertile land, including finding what kind of trees which could grow better and quicker in infertile land. Not only soil analyses but also microclimate monitoring will be carried out in this project. (二)Monitoring and dissemination of sustainable upland agroforestry systems(3/4) Agroforestry management system can be a solution of balancing agriculture for livelihood with sustainability in upland villages. However, related researches in agroforestry are not enough and out of date. To disseminate agroforestry, more update of technologies and consensus among different parties are urgent. This project will monitor the growth of interplanted trees in agroforestry study sites. Main insect pest of interplanted trees will be surveyed. More species and agroforestry models with regional feature will be suggested. In order to develop agroforestry systems fulfilling expectations of the public, opinions of relevant parties will be investigated.
其他研究人員 林國銓 鄧書麟 黃俊元 李沛軒 楊正釧 陳財輝 何政坤
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