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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 水稻品種鑑別及稻麥栽培體系與生產調查技術
計畫名稱(英文) Study on diversified rice breeding and planting
文獻分類 檢測技術 品種鑑定技術
計畫編號 105農科-9.2.3-子-Z1
計畫主辦人 蘇荷婷
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會農糧署糧食產業組糧食生產科
全程計畫年 2016年 ~ 2016年
中文關鍵字 溫度監測;新品系;節水栽培;分子標誌;耐旱型;物聯網;公糧管理;對偶基因頻度分析;單一核苷酸多型性;回交;水稻;水稻;次世代定序;糯稻;多元利用;育苗介質;水庫淤泥;影像特徵萃取;水稻全割;水稻坪割;數量性狀基因座;水稻產量推估;直播稻;單位面積產量;分子標誌輔助回交育種;單核甘酸多型;分類誤差分析;湛水直播發芽;樣本數;多元航遙測資料;秧苗耐淹性
英文關鍵字 Temperature Monitoring;New breeding line;Water-saving cultivation;molecular marker;Drought tolerant type;IoT;Management of Government Purchased Paddy;Allele frequency analysis;Single nucleotide polymorphism;backcross;Oryza sativa L.;Paddy rice;Next genera 
中文摘要 公糧稻穀筒倉出倉管制及即時警示系統整合研究 一、國產公糧以編織袋包裝稻穀型態儲存為主,儲存的環境條件為常溫平倉,袋裝稻穀整齊堆積以便稽查與運用,堆疊需要浩大的人力,且近年來技術人力已日漸難尋。公糧稻穀由平倉常溫儲存調整為筒倉低溫儲藏,擴大規模集中可以提升管理效率,降低政府與委託倉庫業者人力及管理成本支出,並可延長儲存期限及確保品質。 二、筒倉都裝設有溫度量測裝置,本計畫擬以IoT之架構運用網路技術建立雲端監測系統,利用此系統可以進行正確的通風管理,儲存環境監控與進出倉監測將有助於此施政的成功推行。 發展安全及高品質之多元水稻品種及維護環境生產模式 一、高檢驗量稻種DNA純度鑑別技術之研發 依據國際規範(OECD Seed schemes)水稻原原種種子之中異品種的混雜率必須低於1/1,000,然而目前SSR分子標誌對於檢測低頻度的異品種混雜的成本效益低,而目前應用中的SNP食米品種檢測系統在品種間的差異較低,缺乏容錯的能力,因此在本計畫的第一階段,將以基於次世代定序 (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) 與降低基因體複雜度 (Genome complexity reduction) 原則的ddRADseq (double digest Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing) 技術,針對國內栽培品種進行SNP探勘,篩選具有最大解析能力,並具有引子黏合區保守性的SNP分子標誌,目標為在不具有明顯親緣關係的品種之間至少有3個SNP的差異。 二、利用水庫淤泥研發水稻育苗栽培介質 本研究將探討以水庫淤泥做為水稻育苗介質的合適性和效益,以解決水稻育苗土來源不足的問題。將水庫淤泥以不同比例混合稻殼或稻稈以做為育苗介質,並分析不同育苗土介質組合之物化特性和營養元素含量。量測秧苗在不同育苗介質的生長情況,以了解育苗介質之物化特性中影響秧苗生長之關鍵因子或限制因子,並篩選最佳育苗土介質組合以供實際測試使用。預期以水庫淤泥為育苗介質之組成,將具有去化汙泥和解決育苗土不足之雙重效益。 三、選育加工用之早熟秈糯稻品種 為配合稻米多用途政策及輪作制度之需求,本計畫擬選育早熟、糯性之高產秈稻品種,以供農民生產高經濟價值之稻米。本計畫主要目的為利用回交後代再重組品系(backcross recombinant lines)選拔方法,經回交兩次之個體進行自交後代選拔,且在回交及自交後代族群進行分子標誌輔助目標性狀前景、遺傳背景選拔及重要農藝性狀之外表型選拔,將目標性狀轉移至大陸秈品種,維持大陸秈品種之多數遺傳背景(包含早熟特性),但改良株型及產量等其他重要性狀。本計畫為預期三年計畫之第一年,將進行大陸秈品種(母本)與台?糯1號品種(父本)雜交產生F1種子,再回交大陸秈品種以獲得BC1F1世代之種子,同時將設計及測試位於Spike、wx及alk三對基因上之分子標誌,並且篩選兩親本間具多型性之分子標誌,供遺傳背景選拔之利用。 四、多元利用耐旱型水稻新品系之選育與節水效益評估 水稻是世界上主要糧食作物之一,也是禾穀類作物基因體研究最佳之模式作物。近年來,全球環境變遷致使溫室效應擴大,異常高、低溫與水災、旱災頻傳,此類非生物性逆境造成每年水稻產量損失超過一半以上,影響農民生計甚鉅。由於這些環境逆境多為數量基因控制性狀,過去傳統育種極少針對非生物性逆境進行水稻品種改良,現在因生物技術的進步,帶來許多新的改良策略,預估未來將可藉由生物技術方法,有效提高水稻對乾旱逆境的耐受性,擴大栽培面積,增加產量。本研究前期計畫已建立水稻與陸稻雜交之重組自交系,並建立耐旱性篩選系統與指標,初步也篩選到多個耐旱相關數量性狀基因座及候選優良族系,成果豐碩,非常值得繼續利用這些候選族系進行節水栽培效益及加工利用可能行評估,預期可選育出加工用耐旱型水稻新品系。 五、台灣水稻直播品種之分子標誌開發及育成 台灣水稻直播約占栽培面積的 5%。我國屬小農國家,近年來農村人口老化,在直播栽培生育初期需要較多的人力因素下,直播稻的發展受到限制。另在技術上,無適當的直播栽培品種亦是直播栽培無法擴大的原因。然而直播栽培節省各項人力成本支出,且以機械或人工撒播具備快速、方便等優點,漸受各國農民喜愛。台灣目前尚無任何品種及育種材料進行湛水直播發芽及秧苗耐淹性的遺傳及分子標誌開發研究。因此本研究將調查台灣現有栽培品種及育種親本湛水直播發芽能力及秧苗耐淹存活率,同時從國際水稻研究所 (IRRI) 引進適合直播栽培的種原,配合高通量 SNP 分型 (genotyping) 及數量性狀基因座定位結果,應用分子標誌輔助回交育種 (marker-assisted backcrossing, MABC) 方法育成適合台灣栽培環境的直播品種。 六、水稻單位面積產量調查方法之研究 坪割為現行水稻產量調查的主要方式,為節省施行坪割之成本,本計劃擬分析各鄉鎮市區單位面積產量歷史資料與105年度坪割結果,透過解析影響水稻進行坪割時樣本田單位產量變異的因素 (如行政區劃分、氣候條件、栽培種類、栽培方式等),據以推定單位產量較為同質的試區範圍。期望以同質試區為單位進行分層抽樣,可降低各試區所需的坪割樣本數,達到降低調查成本的目的。另外,延續前人研究中以全割或濕榖換算法取代坪割法進行產量估算之建議,本計畫擬比較坪割法、全割法、濕穀推算法等三種單位面積產量估算之準確度與成本,以評估未來應採用的方式或考慮結合兩種以上方法同時並行的可能性。 利用UAV、航遙測資訊與多尺度空間資訊轉換分類模式強化水稻田面積及產量調查技術研究 自民國80年起,國內部分學者開始利用衛星影像及GIS資料,發展自動化水稻種植範圍影像判釋,判釋正確性已從早期的60%左右,逐步提升至96%以上。但在航遙測資料持續發展的環境下,影像資料已不僅只有光學衛星與航照相機,可見光/多光譜無人飛行載具與雷達衛星影像,甚至無人飛行載具雷達影像,都可更進一步提供多時段、多光譜與多高程航遙測資料中的水稻生長資訊。現今國內外的學者便藉由如此便利又多元的航遙測資料,以不同的演算法與資料組合,發展出多種農作物的影像判釋與產量預估模式。 國內現行的水稻種植分佈與面積調查方式,主要仍以農航所數值航照人工判釋,再輔以地面抽樣驗證判釋正確性。由於農航所自民國97年已利用數位製圖像機及空載數位掃描儀,同步紀錄4波段的地表光譜資訊,因此已具備發展自動化農作物航照影像判釋的基礎。本研究將以歷年利用光學衛星影像進行水稻種植範圍自動判釋經驗與成果為基礎,結合103年發展之以L-Band雷達影像進行水稻判釋模式、102-104年所發展之多元多期空間資訊整合分析模式,及前人以航遙測資料進行稻作估產研究成果,研發以多元航遙測資料進行水稻種植面積自動判釋與產量推估模式。 藉由本研究所建立的水稻種植面積自動判釋與產量推估模式,將國內可有效取得與運用的航遙測資料,包含光學衛星、4波段數值航照、可見光/近紅外光無人飛行載具、雷達衛星影像資料,甚至即將引進國內的無人飛行載具雷達影像,整合後進行自動化且高精度的水稻種植面積判釋與產量推估,藉以提升國內的水稻種植現況調查與產量估算的整體效益。
英文摘要 Developments of Cloud Monitoring System for Security of Government Purchased Paddy in Cold Storage 一、 In Taiwan, the government purchased paddy is bagged and stored in entrusted warehouses under room temperature. The storage operation is labor-intensive, management and monitoring cost is high and also paddy quality is severely decreasing in storage. Low temperature bulk storage of paddy has advantages of decreasing operation labor, easy management and monitoring; also prolong paddy storage life with high quality. 二、 Temperature monitoring systems are well equipped in most silo and brain. The purposing project is to develop an IoT system and protocol for better management, monitoring and operation of bulk storing government purchased paddy in silo or brain. Study on diversified rice breeding and technology improvement 一、Development of high throughput method for variety purity testing of rice According to the OECD Seed schemes, the genetic purity of rice basic seed should exceed 99.9%. However, the SSR system currently used in verifying the labeled variety for retailed rice is designed to be used on single grains and it is extremely inefficient to detect low frequency of other varieties. The objective of this proposed study is to develop an allele frequency measuring system based on SNP markers, specifically for detecting contamination at the rate of or below 1/1,000. At the first stage of this study, ddRADseq (double digest Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing) will be used to develop at least 500 SNP markers among Taiwan rice varieties. From these markers, a set of 16 SNP with the highest resolving power will be selected at the criteria that non-related varieties should be different with at least 3 marker. The newly developed SNP marker set may also be used for verifying variety labels for retailed rice and variety purification process should it become a necessity. At the later stage of this study, a system based on the next generation sequencing platforms will be developed to measure the allele frequencies and detecting other varieties for 10 mixed samples in parallel. 二、Utilization of reservoir sediments as nursery substrate for rice seedlings This study is aimed to study the feasibility and benefits of using reservoir sediments as nursery substrate for rice seedlings. A sediment sample collected from Shihmen reservoir will be mixed with different amounts of rice husk or straw to be the nursery substrates for growing rice seedlings. The physical and chemical properties of the nursery substrates will be analyzed and their effects on the growth of rice seedlings will be investigated. The results will be used to evaluate the predominant factors among the physical and chemical properties of the nursery substrates, which determine the growth of rice seedlings, and provide information for developing new formulations of nursery substrates using reservoir sediments. 三、Breeding new varieties of indica rice with early maturity and glutinous grains for industrial uses To fit for the policy and needs of a rotation system, this project is planned to breed new indica type rice varieties, with early maturity, glutinous, and high yield, for the farmers. The method of backcross recombinant line selection, namely selecting self-pollinated progenies from the BC2 population, accompanied with marker–assisted selection and phenotypic selection will be applied. Targeted genes will be transferred from a donor parent (TKN-1) to a recurrent parent (land variety Dalusen) and other important traits will be improved with phenotypic selection. In the first year of a three-year project, we will make a cross between varieties Dalusen and TKN-1 to produce F1 seeds. And the F1 will be back crossed to the recurrent parent (Dalusen) to produce BC1F1 seeds. Specific primers located on Spike, wx, and alk genes will be designed and tested for selecting targeted traits. In addition, polymorphic markers between two parents will be screened for genetic background selection. 四、New breeding line selection with drought tolerance in rice for multiple usage and its water-saving efficiency assessment Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world as well as an excellent model for genomics research in cereal crops. Recently, more than 50% of rice yield lost caused by extreme temperature variation, flooding and drought stress. It’s hard to improve these abiotic stresses related traits through conventional breeding because they belong to quantitative trait loci. It becomes more possible and efficiently to enhance stress tolerant in plants using agricultural biotechnology recently. The purpose of this study would like to use the recombinant inbred lines initiated from japonica rice and upland rice hybridization established in the past three years to select new breeding lines tolerant to drought stress under water-saving cultivation system. Besides, we would like to assess the possibility of this candidate breeding lines for processing usage. 五、Develop SNP markers for breeding direct-seeding rice varieties Direct seeding is becoming a popular method in some rice-growing areas, especially in Southeast Asian countries, because of its low cost and convenience. However, poor seedling establishment has been a major obstacle preventing the large-scale adoption of direct-seeding methods. Many environmental and genetic factors affect early rice growth and establishment in the field. For example, flooding due to rainfall or uneven agricultural land creates unfavorable conditions for rice to germinate and develop strong and uniform seedlings. Therefore, breeding rice varieties capable of surviving under flooded conditions during germination and early growth stages will improve the success of direct-seeding cultivation. In this proposal, we plan to evaluate the local Taiwan varieties for their seedling traits under submergence, and develop high-density SNP markers for marker-assisted backcrossing selection. 六、Methodology of rice yield estimation The manpower-consuming crop-cutting protocol is the current way to estimate the rice yield-per-hectare in Taiwan. In order to estimate the yield with better efficiency, this project will investigate the historical data and crop-cutting results in 2016 to identify homogeneous subpopulations of sampling administrative divisions according to their weather conditions, rice varieties, planting methods, etc.. By sampling from homogeneous subpopulations, it is expected a fewer sample size is needed to achieve certain accuracy of the estimation. Additionally, the whole-cutting protocol and the yield estimated from the wet grains delivered to the Drying Centers are two possible alternatives to the crop-cutting protocol according to previous studies. We will also compare the estimation accuracies and costs of the three methods. All above results are used to justify the possibility to suggest a new strategy to estimate the rice yield-per-hectare in Taiwan. Research of Apply UAV, Remote Sensing Information and Multi-Scale Spatial Information Transform Classification Model to Improve Paddy Rice Area and Yeild Invesigation Technique From 1990s, some researchers were used satellite images and GIS data to develop automatic paddy rice interpretation in Taiewan. The interpret accuracy was started from 60%, increased to 96% up via model improvement. With remote sensing equirements developing, besides optical satellite image and aerial photo, we can apply UAV VIS/NIR images, satellite SAR images and even UAV SAR images, to analyze growing information about paddy rice by multi-temporal, multi-spectral and multi-evelation remote sensing data. With these data and different algorithms, researches can develop image interpretation and yield prediction models for several crops. In Taiwan, paddy rice investigation are mainly accomplished by manually interpretion with aerial photo from Aerial Survey Office (ASO) and sampling verification with ground survey. From 2008, ASO started to use Digital Mapping Camera (DMC) and Aerial Digital Sensor (ADS) to record 4 bands (Red, Green, Blue, NIR) information of land cover in Taiwan. So that, it is ready to develop crop interpretation with digital aerial images from ASO. In this research, with the experience of automatic interpretation paddy rice from optical satellite images in recent years, L-Band SAR image interpret method for paddy rice, multi-sources and multi-temporal spatial information integrated analysis method and the research results of rice yield prediction with remote sensing data, we will develop a method of automatic paddy rice interpretation and yeild prediction from multi-sources remote sensing data. Applying this method, we can efficientally use apporpriate remote sensing data, such as optical satellite/aerial image, satellite SAR image and UAV VIS/NIR/SAR images, and can integrate into automatic and high accuarcy paddy rice interpretation and yeild prediction method to improve the investigation and yeild prediction benifit of paddy rice in Taiwan.
其他研究人員 胡凱康 曾信嘉 林順福 李瑞陽 王尚禮 黃文理 徐逸祥 李允中 劉力瑜 朱子豪 雷祖強 董致韡 羅正宗
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