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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 農業暨天然資源物再利用於作物生產之研發
計畫名稱(英文) Studies of recycling agricultural residues and natural resources in crops production
文獻分類 繁殖環境
計畫編號 105農科-9.5.5-子-N1
計畫主辦人 黃圓滿
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會臺南區農業改良場作物改良課
全程計畫年 2016年 ~ 2016年
中文關鍵字 栽培介質;穀類副產物;介質;肥土愛氏蚓;農業副產物;稻殼;綠竹;農業廢棄物;花卉栽培介質;正磷酸;泥碳土;茄科;多醣體;冰醋酸;介質;廢料;掘穴環爪蚓;乳酸;蚓糞栽培;瓜類作物;栽培介質;杭菊;穴盤;連作障礙;種苗生產;果菜類;可分解穴盤;再利用;都市廢棄物;農業廢棄物;舞菇;蚓糞堆肥;生物炭;金針菇;蔬菜;聖誕紅;稻稈;稻殼;栽培介質;檸檬酸;種苗;介質;微生物肥料
英文關鍵字 growth medium;cereal residues;Substrate;Eisenia fetida;agricultural waste;rice hull;Green bamboo;Agricultural residues;Floriculture media;Orthophosphoric acid;peat moss;Solanaceae;polysaccharide;Acetic acid;media;mushroom spent;Perionyx excavatus;Lactic a
中文摘要 利用農業資源物開發菇類栽培關鍵技術 一、我國菇類年產值已逾90億,每年使用之木屑太空包與產瓶已超過2億5千萬包/瓶,所產生之農業廢棄物估計超過10公噸,目前雖已有業者利用菇類栽培後介質作為堆肥,然卻仍有部份菇農將其丟棄於田間,造成環境之污染。近年來由於環保意識抬頭,加上木屑資源短缺,因此有效利用菇類栽培後介質與其他替代資源變成相當重要,本研究擬針對杏鮑菇與金針菇之廢棄物進行開發作為提升舞菇多醣體之配方與銀耳栽培之介質,此外更將利用竹屑作為替代木屑之介質,開發多種菇類之栽培模式,以期利用此些農業廢棄物開發更環保且有價值之菇類栽培模式。 開發金針菇栽種後廢木屑再栽種蔬菜關鍵技術 由於台灣菇類產業蓬勃發展,相對所產生菇包廢棄物可高達19萬公噸/年,如何有效處理及利用菇包廢棄物,以減少對環境生態影響及提高經濟效益。金針菇其為國內重要食用菌年產量約為3.9萬公噸,經粗估換算每年產生廢棄物可達5萬公噸,加上其為一次採收性之菇類,栽培期僅52-58天,採收後基質內仍富有未被利用養分,若能充分利用基質,提高使用價值。 設施蔬菜栽培舊介質重複利用關鍵技術之開發 本計畫目標為探討中部地區設施瓜果類蔬菜舊介質再利用可行性。以舊介質栽種常見問題、瓜果類蔬菜生育情形與土壤化學分析之關聯性,建立相關生理指標,並依其結果開發適合臺灣本土舊介質再利用技術。可望提升介質利用率,減少農民成本支出,發揮離地介質栽培之效益,可供日後業者及農民應用之參考。 表面修飾稻殼於蔬菜育苗及花卉栽培之研究 蔬菜育苗或花卉栽培常用介質資材(如泥炭土、椰纖)須仰賴國外進口,不僅增加種植成本並易受供應不穩定的影響。根據財政部關務署統計資料庫,民國102年我國一共進口栽培介質約8315公噸。 目前進口泥炭土每100公升市價約340-400元、進口椰塊每100公升市價約200-250元,若能有效降低農民購買栽培介質之成本,可大幅增加其種植的收益。為解決農業廢棄物對環境污染問題,並減少對國外進口栽培介質之依賴,利用農業事業廢棄物作為替代性資材之需求已勢在必行。稻殼俗稱粗糠,為穀粒加工生產之副產物,每年稻殼廢棄物約60萬公噸。碾完米剩下之稻殼向碾米場購買每100公升約30元,稻殼若可經由合理修飾及運用,可減少農民之栽種成本。本研究將以檸檬酸對稻殼表面進行修飾,增加其陽離子交換容量,而後將修飾稻殼依不同比例與泥碳土混合作為栽培介質,種植蔬菜苗,評估此栽培介質對蔬菜育苗的影響,本年度將試著大量生產修飾稻殼,並進行已完成之泥炭土混合修飾稻殼複合栽培介質之肥培試驗,期望修飾稻殼相關研究結果可實際運用於蔬菜育苗上 。 開發應用蚯蚓快速轉化作物殘體為蔬菜栽培介質之技術 本年度之計畫目標在於建立蚓糞運用在盆植蔬菜介質,其與商用栽培介質之最佳混合比例。參考前人之研究方法,以蚓糞:商業栽培介質1:1,1:2,1:3,1:4,1:5以及只有商業栽培介質為對照,將其作為試驗用之栽培介質, 選用當季較適合之蔬菜種類,如空心菜、莧菜或萵苣等短期葉菜,以上述混合之栽培介質,進行盆植蔬菜生長調查。本計畫將建立蚓糞與商業栽培介質之最佳混合模式1種,提供家庭園藝或城市農業盆植蔬菜之參考。 利用蚯蚓轉化資源物為有機肥料之高效率生產技術 一、完成菇包、甘藷下腳料、番茄殘株等農業廢棄物前處理流程(包含物理性破壞、堆肥化指標建立及投料後蚯蚓反應分級),以利業者使用時遵循,避免造成投料後蚯蚓不適或取食不易之現象。 穀類副產物製作穴盤技術開發及其對種苗生產之影響 為改善穀類副產物處理問題、提升穀類副產物附加價值及解決農用塑膠製品過量對環境的污染,本計畫今年度將利用高纖維穀類副產物提升炭化稻殼穴盤結構強度,並建立花生殼用於再生穴盤之製作模式,並進行效能評估以開發穀類副產物製成可分解育苗穴盤及盆缽技術,應用於農業生產上達到減少塑膠廢棄物、降低穀類副產物處理成本、保護環境、農業永續利用的目標。 建立廢棄稻殼炭化再利用介質生產高品質瓜果之技術 臺灣的栽培介質,如泥炭,仰賴外國進口。同時,國內每年產生數百萬噸農業副產物,水稻副產物為其中大宗。充分有效地處理並利用這種水稻天然資源物,合理再利用於農業生產,除降低對環境衝擊,亦將產生良好的經濟、生態和社會效益。另一方面,炭化稻殼具鹼性及耐腐等特性,恰可中和常用泥炭介質及土壤的不良性質。因此,本計畫擬建立稻殼炭化再利用介質增加瓜果類蔬菜品質之技術及建立利用炭化稻殼為載體提升微生物肥料施用效果技術,除提升農產副產物附加價值,也穩定介質供需與價格。 開發竹類加工副產物用於改良花卉栽培介質 本試驗旨在開發綠竹副產物為盆花栽培之新介質。評估添加綠竹副產物比例於杭菊及聖誕紅盆栽慣用栽培介質,追蹤生育期間介質理化性質變化,探討其對觀賞植物生育之影響,並分別推薦適合之栽培介質配方1?2式。 果菜類蔬菜副產物資源利用 本研究利用茄科及瓜類作物植體副產物製作栽培介質,過程加入有益微生物及豆粕、稻殼以促進介質腐熟,再依其物化性,適當混入椰纖、蛭石、珍珠石,改良介質的物理性質,製作出適合蔬菜栽培之肥料或介質,活化本土化農業資源之再被利用。 改變稻稈物化特性供為栽培介質之多元利用開發 本計畫將三種不同理想粒徑範圍內之碎化稻稈分別以0-50%不等之比例與傳統蔬菜育苗介質(以泥碳土為主成分)做混合,透過對混合介質之理化性質分析、蔬菜種子發芽率、幼苗之生長狀況及品質之評估來探討碎化稻稈取代泥碳土之最適粒徑及比例,期能提高碎化稻稈之混合比例當成蔬菜育苗用介質並在未來可以改善國內蔬菜育苗業者對泥碳土過度依賴之部分問題、降低生產成本及生產高品質蔬菜苗,以提高農民收益及增加農業競爭力。重要工作項目包括碎化稻稈及育苗用介質(含傳統介質及混合碎化稻稈之蔬菜育苗用介質)之理化性質分析、甘藍種子發芽測試以及甘藍和番茄之育苗試驗。預期能篩選出合適的碎化稻稈混合泥碳土配方以成為蔬菜穴盤育苗之資材,並逐漸降低國內相關業者對泥碳土之依賴及需求。
英文摘要 Development of the key thechniques for cultivation of mushroom with recyclable agriculture materials 一、In Taiwan, the Our annual output value of more than 9 billion mushrooms is produced ammually , wood space bag with bottles annually produced more than 250 million packets / bottles, agricultural wastes generated estimated more than 10 tonnes. Although currently cultivated mushroom industry is using after the media as compost, however there are still some of the mushrooms will be discarded in the field, polluting the environment. In recent years, due to the rise of environmental awareness, coupled with a shortage of wood resources, effective use of the media and other cultivated mushrooms alternative resources become very important, this study intends to develop waste for mushroom and mushroom dance as mushroom polysaccharides enhance formulation and fungus cultivation of media, but will also use bamboo as an alternative to wood shavings of media, development of a variety of mushrooms cultivation patterns, to take advantage of this to develop more environmental friendly agricultural wastes some valuable mushrooms and cultivated mode. Development of new technologies for reusing enokitake sawdust as vegetable culture medium There is a flourishing mushroom industry in Taiwan and approximately 190,000 ton/year of mushroom spent substrate was estimated to have been produced. In order to decrease environmental impacts and increase economic efficiency resulting from mushroom production, sawdust waste management is a key component of the production process. Enokitake (Flammulina Velutipes) is an important edible fungi in Taiwan, the annual prouction is around 39,000 ton and the sawdust waste is about 50,000 ton. A study was carried out to investigate the possibility of reusing wood sawdust substrates after enokitake cultivation as culture medium for vegetable production Development of Key Technologies for Reused Substrate in Greenhouse Vegetable Production The object of this study is to evaluate the possibility of reusing cultural substrate of fruit vegetable production in greenhouse. The relationship between plant growth and substrate properties are investigated to establish physiological index for cultivation. It also respects to develop the optimal reused technology for substrate culture in Taiwan for grower as well as increase efficiency of substrate and decrease the cost of production. Research of Surface Modification Rice Husk on Vegetable Seedling and Flower Cultivation The culture in substrates vegetable seedling incubation and floriculture usually rely on foreign imports in Taiwan. It is not only increasing the cost of crop culture but also being affected easily by unstable substrates supplement. According to the statistic data of Customs Administration of Finance Ministry, our nation totaly imported about 8315 tons of culture substrates on 2013. Up to present, the cost of peat moss is about 340-400 NT dollars per 100 liters, and the coconut shell is about 200-250 NT dollars per 100 liters. If we effectively decrease the cost of culture substrates, the income of the farmers will increase. In order to solve the problem of the enviromental pollution of agriculture residues and to reduce the dependence on culture substrates import, using agriculture residues as culture substrates is imperative. Six hundred thousand tons of rice husk which is the byproduct of rice food processing are produced per year in Taiwan. The rice husk cost 30 NT dollars per 100 liters. If the rice husk can be modified and used, the cost of crop culture will decrease. In this research, we will increase the cation exchange capacity of rice husk by modifying tis surface by citric acid. Then we will cultivate the vegetable seeding in substrates that mixed by the modified rice husk and peat moss in different ratio to estimate the effects of modified culture substrates on it. Studies of vegetable production with vermicompost as a substitute for peat in potting media The objective of this research is to establish a reference model of using vermicompost as an amended substrate for peat in potting media for growing leafy vegetables. Six mixtures of vermicompost and peat with different ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and peat only (ck) will be conducted in the experiments to assess the feasibility of applying vermicompost as substrates in container vegetables. The expected benefits are providing some practical applications from the experimental results for urban farming. The high efficiency production of organic fertilizer by vermiculture We plan to establish a pre-treatment process of sawdust, sweet potato, and tomato residue, which may include material physical destroy, and index of composting. Utilization of rice hull biochar for production of high quality fruit vegetables Agricultural culture medium such as peat moss is mostly imported and its availability is going to be limited in recent years. In the other way, hundreds of million tons of agricultural byproducts are some environment problems in Taiwan. The objectives of this research are to develop a technique that use rice hull biochar to substitute the utilization of imported agricultural culture medium for fruit vegetables planting, and to develop a technique that make biochar as a carrier of microbial agent. Supplementation of agricultural medium would be stabilized by better utilization of rice hull, together with increasing profits of the farmers. Development of cereal residues made plug trays producing techniques and the effects on seedling production. To solve the usage problem of cereal residues, improve the added value and reducing the pollution of agricultural plastic wastes in environment, the project will use peanut hulls in producing degradable nursery plug trays. The quality will be investigated. And to strengthen the structure of carbonized rice hulls degradable nursery plug trays, high fiber cereal residues will be add. The objectives of this project are reducing the plastic wastes, decreasing the cost of cereal byproducts disposed, protecting environment and sustainable use of agriculture. Development of bamboo processing byproducts in the floriculture media The study will be conducted to develop green bamboo byproducts to the new potting cultural medium. According to vibration of physical and chemical properties in different added ratio with crushed green bamboo of potting florist's daisy and poinsettia media, the growth characters and ornamental qualities of plant will be evaluated and one or two kinds of cultural formula will be suggested in the trial. Study on the Reuse of Fruit Vegetable Wastes The plants of Solanum and cucurbits crops will be mixed with bean meal and rice hull to ferment by actinomyces. The fermented residues are mixed with various ratio of coconut shell fiber, perlite, and vermiculite to adjust its physical and chemical properties. Plant wastes will be utilized as the media or fertilizers for vegetables cultivation. The local argicultural resources will be increased it's value and resolve the waste problems. Modification of the physico-chemical properties of rice straw to be used as a growing medium This study will mix shredded rice straw in three ranges of ideal particle size individually with the traditional vegetable growing medium (consisting mainly of peat moss), via both the chemical and physical analysis of the mixed medium, cabbage seed germination test, and cabbage and tomato growth analysis, the potential application of mixing shredded rice straw with peat moss as the growing medium for the production of vegetable transplants is investigated. The main purpose of this study is to determine the most suitable particle size and mixing ratio of shredded rice straw with peat moss and to reduce reliance of vegetable transplant growers on peat moss.
其他研究人員 "潘佳辰 錢昌聖 蘇博信 宋妤 吳安娜 吳寬澤 葉姿瑩 黃三光 劉芳怡 黃雅玲 陳錦桐 倪禮豐 呂昀陞 "
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