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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 林木改良與新品種研發
計畫名稱(英文) Genetic improvement of forest trees and breeding of new
文獻分類 育種-其它(含品種推廣)
計畫編號 105農科-12.1.1-子-G1
計畫主辦人 鍾振德
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會林業試驗所育林組
全程計畫年 2016年 ~ 2016年
中文關鍵字 品種權;遺傳歧異度;扦插繁殖;山胡椒;牛樟;土壤品質;木質酚素;品種檢定;扦插;阿里山五味子;微體繁殖;牛樟芝;精油;台灣赤楊;林木選育;台灣穗花杉;泡桐;熱裂解儀;土肉桂;開花結實;氣相層析質譜儀;育林技術;性狀調查;紅豆杉;育林技術;休耕地;台灣相思樹;育林;遺傳改良
英文關鍵字 plant variety right;genetic diversity;cuttage;Litsea cubeba;Cinnamomun kanehirae;soil quality;Lignans;variety test;cutting;Schisandra arisanensis;micropropagation;Antrodia cinnamomea;essential oil;Aluns formosana;tree breeding;Amen
中文摘要 一、活化農地短伐期樹種育林技術之研究 (一)速生固氮樹種育林技術之研究(3/4) 1. 台灣赤楊與山黃麻可製成菇蕈業所需的木粉,此二樹種均為速生之固氮樹種。雖然目前尚未列入休耕地活化政策的樹種名單,但菇蕈業要求提供此種木粉原料。 本計畫將採集低海拔優良表型母樹種子。透過種子儲存、發芽、育苗、造林至農地之生長表現等標準作業流程進行追蹤調查,評估是否可推薦成為政府補助造林的目標樹種。 2. 台灣相思樹為固氮樹種,具有極強的適應力,在台灣廣泛造林。木材色澤與性質媲美玫瑰木,而比重高更具價值。本樹種的二氧化碳吸存效率在台灣樹種裡最高,且為培養香菇太空包的主成分。整株樹包括木材、樹皮、枝條、花都具有抗氧化活性的成分。本計畫先選拔優良母樹,利用嫁接繁殖營養系苗,在2012年已建立優良母樹嫁接營養系種子園、種源後裔試驗、及栽植密度試驗,擇伐、萌芽更新與木材利用將在造林後3年每年進行。 (二)休耕地造林之土壤改良研究(2/4) 農委會自102年推動「調整耕作制度活化農地計畫」,將原休耕給付經費轉為轉(契)作補貼,休耕地可契作短伐期經濟林。短伐期經濟林一般採用集約經營方式追求林木在短期內達到最大生產量,但這些休耕地在農業使用時期,土地可能已劣化將影響林木之生長,因此必須注意土壤的管理及經營,以維持土地之持續生產力。本計畫之目的擬針對前述契作短伐期樹種進行造林地之土壤管理研究,對造林農地進行土壤管理,包含造林地的土壤調查、整地、施肥方式等,提供農民活化休耕地造林時遵循。針對短伐期樹種相思樹造林地進行土壤管理研究,建立一套農地造林之土壤管理技術,包含造林地的土壤調查、整地、施肥方式等,提供農民活化休耕地造林時遵循。 二、林木化學品系選育與繁殖技術之開發 (一)台灣穗花杉有用品系選育與利用(4/4) 本計畫將發展代謝譜分析,經簡單萃取後用氣相層析質譜儀,分析植物荷爾蒙與其他代謝物。另外利用氣化萃取(vapor phase extraction)技術,以台灣穗花杉與紅豆杉始生花芽為樣品,分析荷爾蒙(包括激勃素、細胞分裂素、離層酸與IAA)、醣類、胺基酸與相關代謝物的代謝變化。台灣穗花杉與紅豆杉每年營養芽綻放兩次,分別在每年的四月與七月初,第二次營養芽綻放後側芽開始分化成生殖芽,因此從營養芽綻放後開始採集樣品分析,直到花芽始生(floral initiation)。從營養芽轉變到開花,對植物的繁衍扮演非常重要關鍵,因為有性生殖的首要就是開花。目前研究已經了解許多的同化物(醣類與胺基酸)與植物荷爾蒙參與了花的誘導。我們分開萃取,將其分成酸性與鹼性兩類,分析植物荷爾蒙與相關反應的化合物,再經衍生化處理後注射進入儀器進行分析。 (二)山胡椒種原蒐集、精油品系遺傳分型與分子鑑定(3/4) 山胡椒(Litsea cubeba)為台灣原生樹種,用途十分廣泛,具有經濟開發價值。然而目前對於台灣的山胡椒原生資源缺乏系統性的研究,因此本計劃擬進行台灣各地區山胡椒品系蒐集並進行果實精油萃取與成分分析,以了解不同品系的精油成分是否具有歧異性,同時利用分子標誌技術針對不同地區山胡椒種原進行分析,以了解不同地區山胡椒種原間的遺傳歧異度,供作後續進行優良品系選育以及推廣利用的參考。 (三)阿里山五味子家系選育與研發(2/2) 本計畫目的將已栽種在六龜、蓮華池和烏來三個不同海拔試驗地之阿里山五味子,進行撫育管理,並且調查每個海拔每個家系生長、開花和結實情形。同時分析阿里山五味子莖葉主要木質酚素含量,選出的優良品系,將來能發展優良的阿里山五味子栽培生產區。 三、經濟林木品種改良與栽培檢定 (一)林木品種性狀檢定開發及新品種研發(4/5) 本計畫以林業試驗所具代表性之林木選育成果進行調查比較,選擇有潛力的樹種及品系作品種開發工作。包括品種蒐集及保存園之建立、性狀調查比較、性狀調查表開發及品種權申請等工作項目。計畫期程內規劃樹種有紅豆杉、泡桐、及土肉桂等3種,其中紅豆杉之性狀調查表已開發且已經公告為適用品種權種類,並獲得台紅1號與2號品種權證。其它土肉桂、及泡桐2種須先完成性狀調查表開發,預計泡桐及土肉桂亦將於期程內申請品種權保護。 (二)牛樟品種檢定與育林技術(3/4) 牛樟為台灣的闊一級木,近年因牛樟為高價牛樟芝的原木來源,造成牛樟資源短缺。生技產業為永續牛樟原木來源,開始投入牛樟造林。牛樟造林苗木來源,多來自 採穗園,採穗園母株的樹齡對穗苗生長及造林存活率頗有影響。林試所在101至102 年分別在不同海拔及各地區造林顯示,種子苗與組培苗的造林成活率最高,其次是1 、3年生採穗園苗,20年生採穗園苗存活率最低。由於種子苗來源稀少,組培苗成為 造林及採穗園建造最好的材料。目前林試所已經從前人造林檢定試區中,選拔生長 表現佳的營養系建立組培苗生產體系,共有9個營養系組培苗建立8區的造林比較,這些品系在組培生產及造林後生長頗有形態差異。生技業者急需這些品系的性狀 檢定資料,以利其投資造林,及建立採穗園,因此建立這些優良組培營養系的品種 檢定,有利產業投資造林的發展。另外,牛樟天然母樹調查中發現有些母樹易樹心 腐朽產生牛樟芝,有些則木心完好,不易感染產生心腐。本計畫也針對這些母樹進 行採集芽體進行組織培養及扦插繁殖,作為提供易於生產牛樟芝品系及生產貴重木 材品系的苗木履歷,有利於牛樟產業的發展。
英文摘要 一、Study on silviculture of short rotation tree species planting in reactivation fallow (一)Study on silvicultural technique of fast growing tree species with nitrogen fixation.(3/4) 1. Alnus formosana and Trema orientalis are made of wood powder for mushroom industry. Both of them are nitrogen-fixing tree species with fast growing character. Although they are not in the list tree species in fallow activation policy, mushroom industry ask these wood materials. In this project, we will collect seeds from mother trees with good phenotype where grown at low elevation. Seed storage, germination, seedling nursing, and forestation will establish in farm to investigate their growth performance as to be recommended trees of government subsidy. 2. Taiwan acacia (Acacia confusa) is a nitrogen-fixing tree with strong adaptability and has been planted extensively in Taiwan. The wood color and quality compared to rose wood but with grater gravity make it more valuable. It is a tree species with the greatest efficiency of CO2 sequestration and a major composition of Shiitak growth bag in Taiwan. The whole trees including wood, bark, twig, and flower were found chemicals with antioxidant activity. In this project we had selected trees with good phenotype. Clonal seed orchard and progeny test established in 2012. Silviculture technique including different planting densities, selection felling, and coppice regeneration had conducted step by step. Planting density trials established in 2012. Selection felling and coppice investigation carried out every year since 3 years after plantation. (二)Study on improvement of soil quality for fallow farm (2/4) The Council of Agriculture launched the \\"Cultivation System Adjustment and Fallow Land Reactivation Program\\" in 2013. Producing award will replace fallow subsidies to encourage fallow land to replant, and with the promotion of afforestation and ecological cultivation of short-term crops. But the producing award of fallow for afforestation is limited for short rotation wood which is deeded with industry. Short-rotation plantations are usually intensively managed to produce high yields. But the soil of fallow for afforestation is degraded in agricultural used period that will maybe lead to the low production or failure plantation of afforestation . Therefore, we must pay attention to the management and operation of the soil, in order to maintain sustainable productive land. The purpose of this project is intended to soil management research for the fallow which convert cropland to short-rotation plantation, including the method of soil survey, soil preparation and fertilization, and these research results will provide guidance for farmers which convert cropland to short-rotation plantation. 二、Development of tree breeding and propagation techniques of clonal lines with special chemical components (一)Collection, culture, breeding and utilization of germ plasm of Amentotaxus formosana (3/4) This research project is proposed to develop metabolic profiling approach to the analysis of phytohormones and other metabolites based on a simplistic preparation scheme and analysisby electronical ionization-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, we willdevelop the vapor phase extraction technique and use the first initiated flower bud of Amentotaxus formosana and Taxus sumatrana to illustrate metabolic changes in phytohormones(including GAs, cytokinin, ABA, IAA etc), sugars, amino acids and other organic acids. The vegetative buds burst of Amentotaxus formosana and Taxus sumatrana occurs in the early April and July, respectively. The axillary buds started floral initiation after the second vegetative bud burst. So, we will collect the analysis samples from vegetative bud burst to floral bud initiation. The timing of the transition from vegetative growth to flowering is of paramount importance in plant breeding because flowering is the first step of sexual reproduction. Several chemicals assimilates (sugars and free amino acids) and known phytohormones participate in floral induction. Analysis of acidic and basic phytohormones and related signalling molecules was best when coupled by splitting extracts and trimethysilylation. (二)Germplasm collection, molecular genotyping and identification of essential oil composition of Litsea cubeba(Lour.) Persoon (3/4) Litsea cubeba Pers. is a deciduous bush or small tree mostly distributed in the East Asia region. It is a precious aromatic plant with multiple functions. The purpose of this study is to collect germplasms of L. cubeba form different regions of Taiwan. The chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs) extracted from fruits of L. cubeba tree will be characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess variations of EO compositions of L. cubeba collected from different parts of Taiwan. DNA marker techniques will be used to estimate the genetic diversity among populations and individuals of L. cubeba. The investigations of this study would provide information for future breeding programs and industrial application of L. cubeba. (三)Family selection, research and development of medicinal species Schisandra arisanensis (2/2) The objectives of this study are to manage the three plantations of Schisandra arisanensis that were located at three different elevation, and to investigate and compare growth height, numbers of flowering and fruiting among the half-sibfamilies. The plan also will analyze major lignans from stems and leaves and select the superior sibfamilies to set up plantation area in the future. 三、Tree improvement of valuable tree species and establishment of cultivation guideline (一)Establishment of test guidelines for tree varieties and new variety research and development (4/5) Many valuable varieties of tree species have been selected and breeding in Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. In this project, we choose economical potential races of tree species to investigate and evaluate to be varieties. Studies included potential varieties collection, clonal gardens, variety characters and test guideline establishment, and variety application, etc. The species selected were Taxus sumatrana, Paulownia hybrids, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Character tables of Taxus genus has been announced as applicable to be plant variety,while others required to be established. Two varieties of T. sumatrana named as Taiyew No. 1 and 2 have been obtained plant variety certification. Paulownia hybrids and C. osmophloeum will be next ones applying for new varieties. (二)The studies on varieties test and silviculture techniques of Cinnamomum kanehirae (3/4) Cinnamomum kanehirae is one of the broadleaf tree species with 1st class. The log is the source to cultivate valuable Androdia cinnamomea fruit. Biotech companies invested forestation of this trees to obtain logs sustainable. Plants for forestation came from rooted cuttings which qualities of survival and growth were affected by aging scion gardens. Early plantations established indicated that ranks of survival rates were seedlings and tissue culture plants > plants from one- year-old scion gardens > 3-year-old gardens > 20-year-old gardens during the field test in 2012 and 2013. Because seed obtained difficultly in wild trees, tissue culture plants and scion gardens from them are the best materials for forestation. There have 9 clones from tissue cultures were planted at 8 sites. Morphological characters and performance in field test varied a lot. Biotech companies required identification of characters to verify these varieties for sure a good growth performance in the plantations they will establish. Furthermore we found wild trees have variation to resistant the infection of A. cinnamomea. This project try to propagate readily infected and health trees by tissue cultures and cuttings to support both industries of A. cinnamomea fruit and wood.
其他研究人員 林國銓 陳永修 陳舜英
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