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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 作物遺傳資源管理及新品種開發利用
計畫名稱(英文) Management and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources
文獻分類 總論
計畫編號 105農科-9.7.1-子-C1
計畫主辦人 溫英杰
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物種原組
全程計畫年 2016年 ~ 2016年
中文關鍵字 家蠶;甘藷;植物品種資料庫;紫蘇醛;原原種種子;香藥草;資訊系統;保育;超低溫冷凍保存;種子活力;種原
英文關鍵字 silkworm(Bombyx mori L.);sweet potato;Plant Variety Database;Leaf perillaldehyde;foundation seed;aromatic herbs;Information system;conservation;cryopreservation;Seed vigor;Germplasm
中文摘要 台灣香藥草植物資源利用及加值化之研究 一、本年度以紫蘇等唇形科香藥草植物為試驗材料,以光期中斷和遮陽處理調整其營養生長期,可持續採收鮮食葉片,或生產乾燥葉片做為農產品加工之原料。以暗期光中斷和遮陽處理,開發紫蘇養生食材之多元利用可行性,採收新鮮葉片做為市售高單價之鮮葉片食材,進而提高紫蘇的產值和經濟效益,增進產業競爭力。 熱帶及亞熱帶果樹種原之蒐集及保存 一、 擴大果樹種原收集層面,以增加種原種類,做為資源保育並供育種材料。 二、 有系統的建立果樹種原基本特性,以利優良種原推廣之參考,並發揮生態保育及教育功能。 三、 進行果實品質分析及其他特性評估,增加新興果樹種類之利用。 四、 加強果樹苗木的更新及繁殖方法改進,以利將來地區試種及種原交換之用。 作物遺傳資源管理及新品種開發利用 北部地區新興柑橘品種之保存與利用研究 台灣柑橘產業因栽培品種不多,產期集中常有生產過剩之情形。為使柑橘品種多樣化,就已收集之經濟栽培之柑橘品種品系、其他柑橘種原及次要品種之進行紀錄觀察,提升種原利用效率,於關西展示園中定植各類橙類、寬皮柑及其雜交柑品種(系)達90多種,各品種(系)已陸續進入結果期,持續觀察記錄其園藝性狀表現,如開花期、結果情況、成熟期和病蟲害抗性等,並分析果實品質,評估適合推廣發展之新 興柑橘品種,以解決柑橘品種單一化且集中化導致生產過剩等問題。提供我國北部地區柑農教育,研究人員育種所需不同時期成熟之新引進品種試驗材料資訊,及果農周年栽培選擇品種時之參考。 作物種原庫遺傳資源之保存及利用研究 一、本計畫主要目的在於維護國家作物種原中心種原保存設施及利用各項種原保存技術保存我國植物遺傳資源。種原中心的主要任務為種原的收集、保存、分贈及發展保存及鑑定技術,並提供種原資訊及進行種原引種與國際交換。對於可在低溫、低濕的環境長期貯藏的種子種原材料,依保存目的不同,分別貯藏於長期庫、中期庫及短期庫。對於種子無法以低溫低濕環境保存或不產生種子的作物種原,依照其生育特性,設立了3個種原保存園,包括望鄉高海拔種原保存園、東光中海拔種原保存園及萬豐低海拔種原保存園,在適地適作的原則下進行各類作物遺傳資源之保存,以免珍貴種原流失。 種子庫暨種原資訊系統管理、種原離體保存與種子活力檢測 本計畫主要目標為進行作物種原資料收集、資料庫運作維護、種原網站資料查詢效率之提昇,以加速種原資訊之交換,促進種原材料之利用,提高育種之成效。針對非種子型態之無性繁殖營養系的種原,保存方式有田間保存、組織培養離體保存和超低溫保存,目前種原中心已建立這三種保存方法和技術,因此,本年度仍將持續進行甘藷、馬鈴薯、山藥、台灣金線連或草莓等種原之繼代培養工作。另外,利用電力、保溫設施及冷凍除濕設備來改變種子的貯存環境是目前世界各國普遍採用的方式,大部份的糧食及蔬菜作物多利用低溫及乾燥的方式來延長種子活力,進而長期保育這些珍貴的材料,此外,並建立種子活力檢測的標準作業流程,以確保種原庫種子保存的品質。 作物種原遺傳變異評估及農場營運管理 本計畫之執行係針對台農1號玉米親本及台農71號水稻原原種在各級繁殖採種過程,觀測田間栽培繁殖時植株主要外觀性狀及調查產量構成要素等,進行長期評估以維持種原一致性,增加農民收入與福祉。此外,試驗農場營運管理將提供最佳之田間試驗環境及有效之農耕作業支援,提高試驗農場管理操作及營運,量產供應卓越的種子,以符合產業永續經營需求。 根莖類作物種原之蒐集、保存及利用 甘藷種原1442個品系(種)、山藥60個品系(種) 、馬鈴薯160個品系(種)及樹薯20個品系(種)種原繼代培養。利用超低溫冷凍長期保存馬鈴薯種原2品種,使回復生長成活率達20%,進行甘藷健康種苗不同覆膜材質試驗及成本評估,最後發表乙篇期刊報告。 茶樹種原蒐集、保存與利用 茶樹種原從日據時代至今,在茶業改良場與魚池分場進行保存,此外臺灣山茶的各項研究報告中也顯示,臺灣山茶如適應性、植物分群等的重要性。因此,本研究針對茶樹種原與臺灣野生茶樹的分布進行種原保存與運用研究,將進行茶樹種原之資源調查,期能提升茶樹種原遺傳資源的利用價值,以提供教學、育種、遺傳資源、生態保育等利用。 台灣北部地區原生植物及主要作物遺傳資源收集及評估利用 本計畫擬對北部地區具開發潛力之原生植物、重點產業作物、原生花卉種原及原生保健植物種原進行收集保存與利用工作,預計建立主要重點作物及原生植物相關資料,加以整理、保存及評估,以充裕種原,做為育種及栽培材料。 強化台灣具潛力之作物新品種檢定技術及遺傳資源管理利用之研究 建立及修訂仙履蘭及石斛蘭品種性狀表及試驗檢定方法,可促進新品種之引進或育種工作,增加農民利益及促進花卉產業之發展,並擴增國內植物品種權受保護之植物種類;並蒐集熱帶觀賞植物-萬代蘭栽培品種為基礎,建立萬代蘭性狀調查表及試驗檢定方法,做為品種檢定依循,促進新品種的開發,提升產業競爭力。受理與進行新品種之檢定工作,落實對育種者權利之保護並促進我國農業之發展,提升國際競爭力;參考國際植物新品種保護公約(UPOV Act,1991)之規範,更新修訂各作物之品種性狀表及試驗檢定方法可以與國際接軌,未來透過雙邊承認協定,有利於我國品種進入其他國家進行申請品種權保護。 品種性狀資料庫之建置,便於受理植物新品種命名及權力之申請時,可以利用資料庫資訊搜尋性狀表現相類似之對照品種,提供育種者比對及相關單位審核品種權之用。辦理植物品種檢定人員訓練,提昇我國檢定人員品種檢定技術能力,推廣植物品種保護概念,落實植物品種保護,促進農業發展。 種原和品種為農產品發展之根基,進行花椰菜、萵苣及豇豆等作物種原收集增加育種者所需材料,避免舊有地方優良遺傳資源遺失,確保種原庫種子之活力,提供育種者及研究單位利用,以促進蔬菜育種工作之發展,建立品種檢定性狀資料庫資料,利於該作物品種檢定代表品種與對照品種之參考;保存蒐集Cassia綠美化苗木種原,建立Cassia綠美化種苗木產程標準模組;加強保存台農種苗二號蜜雪梨之親本種原100株,並建立果園管理作業體系。持續完善香藥草資源收集、保存及維持以利進行香藥草種苗之開發利用。 家蠶種原庫之營運及保育 家蠶種原的保育與繁殖,是發展家蠶相關產業及學術研究的基礎。本計畫針對本場保育之136個家蠶種原,依慣行飼育方法於春秋蠶期進行例行之繁殖及保存。並編撰家蠶推廣手冊,供有志參與蠶業生產者參考。此外,根據日本九州大學家蠶種原庫網站平台(http://silkworm.nbrp.jp/index.html)營運模式,實地參訪及交流研習,以俾利於家蠶飼育技術及種原的推廣及運用。
英文摘要 The utilization and values of herbal plant in Taiwan 一、Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, with varied common names in different places, is a member of Lamiaceae and a native dicotyledon plant in Asia.The objectives of this study were to compare differences in growth behavior of this plant, produce fresh leaves or dried leaves by treatments of night-light and shading with different seasons.Based on knowledge of its long traditional use as a folk medicine, vegetable, garnish and flavoring, in associated with modern scientific research findings, P. frutescens may be considered as a valuable herb containing a lot of beneficial constituents for human health and improve the value and economic benefits to enhance industrial competitiveness. Tropical and Subtropical Fruits Germplasm Collection and Conservation . For the expansion of fruit tree species of the germplasm, and since the germplasm species collected in Taiwan and abroad, the establishment of a system of basic data types of the germplasm, the research project include plant morphology, leaf shape, flower shape, with a view to enhancing fruit growing and varieties. And with a permanent nameplate, can be used as future teaching purposes, to further develop educational, recreational and ecological functions. Management and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resource The citrus conservation and development in the north of Taiwan The national Citrus germplasm conservation center was established at Guansi farm. Several kinds of Citrus stocks including bitter pummelo, citrumelo, citranges, rangpur lime, and volkamer lime, etc., had been planted in the new developed germplsm garden. We have collected 90 Citrus cultivars in the meshroom, and the scions of 50 cultivars have grafted on the Citrus stocks planted in the farm. The botanical and horticulture characters of these grafted cultivars are observed and record when the scions have grown and develop. The work for collecting and conserving Citus germplasm will go on. The draining system and irrigation system was established. The side hill slope is protected by planting trees and Bahia grass. The cultivar for international exchange and the virus-free material for research and testing can be provided by the germplasm. Crop Germplasm Conservation and Utilization 一、The National Plant Genetic Resources Center of Taiwan (NPGRC) is well established to have national mandates to protect and conserve national plant germplasm collections. As a center of plant germplasm, NPGRC is entrusted with the following activities: acquisition, preservation, distribution, and research on germplasm conservation and identification technologies, plus international exchange. For orthodox type seeds germplasm, which include small-seeded grain crops and vegetables, they can be stored for a long time under low-temperature and low-humidity environment and are separately stored in long, medium and short-term store rooms in accordance to the purpose of storage. For vegetatively propagated germplasm, three repositories were assigned at different elevations and altitude to preserve specific crops in accordance to their growth habitat. Management of Seed Bank and Germplasm Information System, Germplasm In Vitro Conservation and Examination on Seed Vigor The objectives of this project are to collect germplasm data, maintain database operation, and promote the query efficiency in the web site. The expected achievements are to accelerate the interchange of plant germplasm information, enhance the use of germplasm material, and improve the outcome of breeding. The preservation of the resources which no seed and proliferate by asexual were reproduced in field, in vitro conservation with tissue culture, and cryopreservation. The three methods and techniques were established and used in TARI. Thus, we will continue achieve the subculture jobs of sweet potato, potato, yam, Taiwan jewel orchid, or strawberry germplasms during this year. Furthermore, many countries all over the world adopt the method that creates seed storage rooms in a low temperature and low relative humidity environment for seed conservation. The seeds of food crops and vegetables usually can be prolonged their life time in a condition of low temperature and low moisture contain. In addition, the standard operation procedures of seed vigor testing will be set up in order to ensure the quality of seed in the inventory. Assessment of crop germplasm genetic variation and Farm management The purpose of project is to evaluate the variances with corn TNG1 parents and rice TNG 71 in propagation seed production process at all levels, main appearance characters of plant cultivation and propagation time of observation and investigation of yield components, for long-term evaluation to improve the consistency of the kind of original, increasing farmers incomes and well-being. In addition, field trials of experimental farm operations management will provide the best environment and effective support of farming operations, improve experimental farm management operations and operation, supply excellence for mass production of seed to meet industry demand for sustainable. The collection, conservation and utilization for root and tuber crops germplasm There are 1442 strains (varieties) of sweet potato , 60 strains (varieties) of yam , 160 strains (varieties) of potato and 20 strains (varieties) of cassava will be reserved by tissue culture and being subcultured. Using cryopreservation for long-term storage on 2 varieties of potato germplasm to recover the plant regeneration rate reaching up to 20%. In addition, using different covering materials for another experiments and to evaluate the cost on the virus-free plantlet of sweet potato. Finally, publish a report of the study to the public. Tea tree germplasm collection, conservation and utilization The tea germplasm conserved in Tea Research and Extension Station and Yuchih Branch, Tea Research and Extension Station from the period of Japanese occupation to the the present, in addition also show Taiwan wild teas in research papers of Taiwan wild teas as the importance of the adaptability, plant cents...etc. Therefore, this study intends to use modern science and technology, for tea with the Taiwan wild tea trees of the distribution of satellite positioning, agronomic traits and ecological surveys and species conservation and the use of the original study will be conducted in of resources survey of wild tea and to analyze the sub-place preservation of the similarities and differences between Taiwan wild tea, a view to enhance the tea germplasm to use the original value of genetic resources to provide teaching, breeding, genetic resources conservation and other functions. Collection, Evaluation and Utilization of Native Plants and Main Crops Genetic Resources in Northern Taiwan The purposes of this program will collect and conserve germplasm of major crops in northern Taiwan, indigenous flora and medicinal plants .The program is expected to establish data base of major crop and native plant germplasm that can be used for breeding, production,conservation and relative studies. Intensification of Plant New Variety DUS Testing Technology and Research of Genetic Resources Management of the Potential Crop in Taiwan The goal of the project is to collect, and preserve and establish the testguideline of paphiopedilum, dendrobium and vanda to promote the the flower industry development. DUS testing personnel training course will be held to promote DUS testing technology in Taiwan, and extend the concept of plant variety protection to enhance the agricultural development. By continuing to collect varieties of cauliflower, lettuce and asparagus bean to avoid local genetic resources lost and vegetable germplasms can provide more plant genetic materials for the breeder. The renew of germplasm by planning should ensure the vitality of seed of germplasm, and provide breeders and research units utilized for the development of vegetable breeding work. Collecting and maintaining local greening seedling species of the original species to breed for mass production technology. Preservation and collection cassia plants to set up the propagation and production system. Preservation of 100 Tainung No.2 pear trees to establish orchard management system. Establish the test guidelines and DUS test methods of ornamental plants. collecting, preserving and maintaining aromatic herbs. We will focus on the development and utilization of herb seedlings, and moisturizing products of aromatic herbs. Conservation and management of Silkworm(Bombyx mori L.) germplasms Silkworm germplasm was the basis for the development sericulture and related biotechnological researches. The aim of this project was conservate the 136 silkworm strains and propagated by regular method in spring and autumn.The handbook of silkworm rearing would be compiling as a reference for people which interested in silkworm production. On the other hand, we will visit Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University,studing about silkworm germplasm in Japan. With visiting and communicating abroad, the silkworm germplasm of Taiwan would be service comprehensively for academic and industrial application in the furture.
其他研究人員 "方信秀 蕭建興 林孟均 廖久薰 簡靖華 吳錫家 羅英妃 張定霖 郭寬福 李裕娟 楊儒民 黃正宗 黃世恩 翁世豪 林儒宏 詹雲貞 林詠洲 羅淑芳 葉永銘 安志豪 劉芳怡 薛佑光 張淑芬 胡智益 劉嘉仁 盧美君 黃裕榆 "
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