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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 環境友善安全資材研發
計畫名稱(英文)
文獻分類 其它
計畫編號 106農科-9.6.2-子-P1
計畫主辦人 謝奉家
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會 
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會農業藥物毒物試驗所生物藥劑組
全程計畫年 2017年 ~ 2017年
中文關鍵字 草莓苗;天然素材;水田除草劑;殺線蟲劑;油茶粕;斜紋夜蛾;省工劑型;生物農藥;蚜蟲;費洛蒙 / 誘引劑;製劑;甜菜夜蛾;綜合防治;連續採收作物;紫外線照射;豆莢螟;農藥殘留消退;蘇力菌;綠殭菌;植物源殺蟲劑;生物檢定;多黏類芽孢桿菌;產品化;炭疽病;安全採收期;生物活性檢測;鑑定;分生孢子;天然殺線蟲劑;瓜螟;基腐病;光安定性;含油劑型;黑殭菌;甘藷;細菌類微生物藥劑;白殭菌;銀葉粉蝨;蘇力菌;小菜蛾;生物防治;白殭菌;二維膠體電泳;漂浮大粒劑;液化澱粉芽孢桿菌;葉螨
英文關鍵字 Strawberry seedling;Natural Pesticide;paddy herbicide;nematicide;camellia seed pomace;Spodoptera litura;labor-saving formulation;biopesticide;aphid;pheromone / attractant;formulation;Spodoptera exigua;Integrated Control;crops with successive
中文摘要 本計畫探討多黏類芽孢桿菌於植物種苗健康管理應用的效果及應用性評估。第一年度擬應用多黏類芽孢桿菌於草莓苗之健化處理,了解其對植株生長及抗病性之影響,由抗藥菌株及螢光標記菌株建立植體上多黏類芽孢桿菌的檢測方法,以了解此有益細菌於草莓苗根系及走莖之存活及生長情形,觀察植株生長及對炭疽病的抵抗力的差異,了解多黏類芽孢桿菌的應用效果優劣,完成多黏類芽孢桿菌之植物保護用特性資料盤點。第二年度擬完成多黏類芽孢桿菌的毒理試驗,確定草莓育苗場應用的效果及問題所在。第三年繼續完成菌株毒理試驗,與其他芽孢桿菌產品及菌株的施用比較健化處理的效果,完成產品發展的資料建置。甘藷基腐病之化學與生物製劑防治方法之建立,利用腐絕41.8%水懸劑及液化澱粉芽孢桿菌製劑 (5X109 CFU/g),進行較大面積之田間防治試驗評估,建立農藥及非農藥之防治之方法。於試驗完成後作為甘藷基腐病之防治藥劑,並召開示範觀摩,以降低其造成之農民損失。安全植物保護製劑開發與創新,農藥製劑有效性及安全性之改良: 本計畫擬開發對環境友善之植物保護資材,以確保農業之安全生產,尤其針對較難防治的病蟲害,希望能透過篩選低毒性的安全製劑,來提供防治時更多的選擇。根?為害多種球根、莖作物之地下部而影響植株發育,造成經濟損失,為減少農民不當藥劑使用之風險,配合根?生態及製劑研發技術,針對田間種球花卉或蔥、韭等蔬菜作物,擬開發低毒性根?專用防治用藥之產品研發;又,根瘤線蟲亦是另一難防治的地下部危害,擬篩選具潛力之天然素材並配合穩定製程製劑調配,開發低毒性之天然素材防治藥劑,降低土壤農藥的殘留,更可供病蟲害防治更多的選擇。安全殺根瘤線蟲劑之產品化開發與利用: 植物根瘤線蟲是危害嚴重的植物病害。本研究以產品化的開發角度,以油茶粕及拮抗微生物為資材,開發天然殺線蟲劑。以超音波輔助技術提高茶皂素萃取率與縮短製程時間。以層析串聯質譜技術鑑定分析產品中活性成分,解決產品鑑別問題。並開發符合防治施藥及產品穩定的固體或液體等劑型。農藥儲架性及田間安定性之改良: 配合減少化學農藥使用政策,國內生物農藥產業發展之利基在於本土性微生物農藥之加速登記上市,然而生物性農藥產品發展之重要技術瓶頸在於其安定化製劑技術的改進。目前國內尚未有真正的真菌製劑產品,就是因為欠缺能夠賦予有效成分優良的貯架壽命、室溫儲存性、以及田間持久性的製劑技術。真菌研究室收集許多蟲生真菌資材,白殭菌製劑室溫保存性不佳,需以低溫冷藏,顯見亟需研發改良白殭菌製劑的貯存性質,甚至是田間的持久性。今年擬透過微生物製劑技術研發,改善真菌製劑的田間受光照降解的問題。生物性農業資材之研究開發,本計畫為4年計畫,主要目標為開發連續採收作物重要害蟲費洛蒙製劑與應用技術,整合作物費洛蒙資材及非農藥防治方法,建立綜合防治方法,以減量化學殺蟲劑,降低農藥殘留,生產安全衛生農產品。試驗時,首先,建立害蟲的飼育技術,以提供試驗所需蟲源。進行害蟲生殖行為觀察,以作為費洛蒙萃取與生物檢定之參考;以及研發收作物害蟲費洛蒙配方與應用技術。然後整合連續採收作物之費洛蒙資材,進行利用費洛蒙綜合防治連續採收作物害蟲之效果評估。執行本計畫將可研發瓜螟(Diaphania indica)及銀葉粉蝨(Bemisia argentifolii )的誘引劑與田間應用技術,探討豆莢螟(Maruca vitrata)相關的誘引劑。整合連續採收作物瓜果類害蟲費洛蒙資材與建立綜合防治方法提供參考應用。本計畫擬開發對環境友善之植物保護資材,以確保農業之安全生產,尤其針對較難防治的病蟲害,希望能透過篩選低毒性的安全製劑,來提供防治時更多的選擇。根瘤線蟲亦是另一難防治的地下部危害,擬篩選具潛力之天然素材並配合穩定製程製劑調配,開發低毒性之天然素材防治藥劑,降低土壤農藥的殘留,更可供病蟲害防治更多的選擇。根瘤線蟲可於多種作物造成危害,由於其生活型態與生活史短暫,使得線蟲之防治 困難度增加。目前用於線蟲防治之藥劑多因毒性高、對環境不友善等因素而逐漸遭 淘汰。隨著消費者的安全意識提高,發展低毒有效的替代性防治方法是具有急迫性 的。生物藥劑為一種低毒友善的防治方法,本計畫主要藉由篩選具潛力的拮抗微生 物來防治根瘤線蟲,藉由篩選、培養與機制的探討,期能提供有效的線蟲防治資材 。蘇力菌 (Bacillus thuringiensis) 為著名、有效之微生物殺蟲劑,除了可替代化學殺蟲劑使用外,也兼具促進植物生長及抑制病害的效果。而近年因環保意識抬頭,化學藥劑所造成之環境汙染以及合理正確用藥深受重視。本計畫為開發蘇力菌與化學農藥混搭使用技術,減少化學藥劑的用量;藉由加入蘇力菌發揮其多功能特性,有效控制害蟲並促進作物健康為方向。主要以蘇力菌為基準,評估減量化學農藥混合蘇力菌之防治效果,及測試微生物製劑對蘇力菌殺蟲效用之影響,篩選出合適之化學農藥及微生物製劑,並且整合其藥劑,搭配出田間安全用藥模式。全球有4千種以上的蚜蟲,約有250種蚜蟲會造成作物的嚴重為害。蚜蟲也可攜病毒成為宿主植物的間接傷害。大量使用化學殺蟲劑防治蚜蟲,已導致普遍抗藥性問題。本試驗研究欲研究和開發防治蚜蟲的植物性殺蟲劑。初步使用浸漬和葉浸漬方法測試單一或混合植物資材對蚜蟲綜合毒性的防治效果,同時測試適當製劑組成,如佐劑、植物油和乳化劑等成分。亦期望發展為作物生產栽培期間對蚜蟲有效防治的技術與管理模式。因推動安全農業及有機農業之需要,微生物農藥產品日漸增多,為落實對微生物農藥產品之有效法管理,匡正產品菌種之混淆空間,亟待加速建立蘇力菌、枯草桿菌及木黴菌等微生物農藥產品的菌種鑑定技術,解決微生物農藥管理之失力點,也有利研發中產品商品化登記及促進該產業之發展。過去因檢驗技術不足,在有限技術下,認為是相同的菌株,可能因不同源,而分屬於不同菌株。因此開發菌株檢驗新技術,突破過去的鑑別限制,快速區分不同來源商品的菌種規格,可協助產品正本清源,有效管理市場。另並因提升鑑別實力,而加速新產品的商品化開發。檢測申請登記及市售之微生物製劑產品(微生物殺蟲劑與微生物殺菌劑)。訂定有效管理微生物製劑商品之品質檢驗規範,協助政府農政單位進行品質管制檢驗工作。蟲生真菌為自然發生之昆蟲病原菌,其利用孢子侵入昆蟲體內,在蟲體內增值生長之後會再釋放孢子感染周圍之昆蟲,在某些狀況下,做為生物農藥之蟲生真菌可以做為替代化學殺蟲劑之另一選擇,以減少化學藥劑對使用者之暴露風險。小菜蛾、玉米螟、甜菜夜蛾及斜紋夜蛾為台灣重要蔬菜害蟲,且亦是世界性重要害蟲,本所生物藥劑組自台灣各地蒐集至少 120株本土蟲生真菌,其中以黑殭菌、綠殭菌、白殭菌及蠟蚧輪枝菌為主,蒐集之蟲生真菌菌株為本土蟲生真菌研究之重要資產,值得進行研究與利用。本計畫篩選具防治此小菜蛾、玉米螟、甜菜夜蛾及斜紋夜蛾四種重要害蟲之蟲生真菌為目標。農作物農藥使用推薦方法合理性探討及安全評估,依據防檢局登記農藥使用方法,將各種不同時期安全採收期訂定分成不同樣態,田間試驗安全採收期問題(3154項農藥之使用範圍) :早期有些蔬菜,僅進行一種作物殘留消退試驗,即登記在蔬菜上,後來大會決議,如果害物多出現於十字花科,如登記蔬菜紋白蝶,改登記於十字花科紋白蝶,加上早期分析儀器、作物品種及環境改變,作物殘留消退應選擇國內外資料或進行試驗再行驗證。此外,農藥登記制度之核准使用範圍係採取單一藥劑、作物及害物之方式,因此,同一藥劑可能因使用範圍不同,存在不一致之安全採收期,甚至未訂安全採收期之現象。延伸制度下之安全採收期問題(2192項農藥使用範圍) :推動群組化延伸使用範圍後,以殘留量潛勢較高或產值較高為代表作物,可以延伸至同一群組代表作物。以非蔥科小葉菜為例,目前農委會公告農藥殘留量試驗作物分群表小葉菜類代表作物為芥藍、萵苣、茼蒿、菠菜、蕹菜、芹菜、葉用甘藷、小白菜、青江菜任選1種, 可延伸至十字花科小葉菜類、菊科小葉菜類及其他小葉菜類等。進行延伸之2192項農藥之使用範圍,安全採收期訂定係以代表性作物殘留國內外資料,進而推估至被延伸作物之安全採收期。以菊科小葉菜類安全採收期訂定為例,殘留消退資料可能參考自芥藍、小白菜、青江菜等代表作物,惟菊科小葉菜類包含結球及半結球萵苣、茼蒿、紅鳳菜及蘿蔓萵苣等。被延伸作物,可能施用推薦農藥經過安全採收期後,殘留可能超出容許量風險,此外,由於參考不同代表作物之消退資料與安全採收期,而致某些被延伸作物在相同藥劑防治不同害物時出現安全採收期不一之問題。變更安全劑型之安全採收期問題(294項農藥之使用範圍): 為降低農民施藥暴露風險或對植物藥害,政府對一些已核准登記作物風險較高劑型如乳劑、可濕性粉劑核準變更成水懸劑、水分散性粒劑、水基乳劑及微乳劑等安全劑型,上述安全劑型多以推估或延續原登記安全採收期,作物上農藥殘留會因劑型不同,剛開始著藥量及最終之殘留量會不同。標示外使用之安全採收期問題(242項農藥之使用範圍) :一些登記小葉菜類、包葉菜類、豆菜類、乾豆類、梨果類、瓜果類、瓜菜類及果菜類等藥劑,當初因無殘留量延伸制度。安全採收期訂定多缺乏農藥殘留消退資料,農民依此方法使用,容易造成超量風險。 本計畫解決未訂有安全採收期之藥劑與安全採收期不一致之問題 。 並依現行農藥登記使用方法行農藥登記使用方法,進行殘留消退試驗 ,提出重新修正合理安全採收期之建議,以落實支援法規修定依據。
英文摘要 In this project, use of Paenibacillus polymyxa on plant seedling health management will be evaluated on its efficacy and applicacy. In the first year, the health management in strawberry nursery by bacterization treatment with P. polymyxa will be examined to explicit the bacterization effect on plant growth and disease resistance. By using antibiotic-resistant and green fluorescent protein-labeled strains of P. polymyxa to investigate the survival and growth of this bacterium on strawerry seedling roots and stolons.In the second year, the toxicity assay of P. polymyxa will be performed, the applicacy of bacterization treatment in strawberry nursery and the problem will be concluded. In the third year, by comparison with the commercial Bacillus products and other candidates of Bacillus species in their endospore form, the traits as biocontrol agent of P. polymyxa will be determined as a basic information for further product development. Development of control methods of chemical and microbial plant protectant for stem root of sweet potato. The purpose of this project is to estimate the effectiveness of Mertect40% and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A1 (5x109 CFU/g) for controlling stemrot of sweet potato. To establish the chemical and microbial control method for stem rot ofsweet potato to decrease the loss of yield. Development and innovation of safe plant protective materials and formulations. To improve the labor-consumption pesticide spraying method in paddy field, and at the same time follow up the research and development of new-formulated pesticide all over the world, this project aims to develop a floating macrogranule product. In prior research, three formulations of the floating macrogranule were successfully screened and the SOPs to the manufacture procedures were constructed. However, problems such as disintegration rate and storage stability must be solved. To overcome the problems described above, and to improve the manufacture process to get a high efficiency, low toxicity, low pollution, labor-saving and time-saving paddy new herbicide formulation – floating macrogranules formulation. Plant-parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematodes, are the difficult to control pests in crope and wood. This research focuses on product development, with Camellia oleifera cake and antagonistic microorganisms as raw materials, develop natural nematocides. In this study, we used ultrasound-assisted technology to improve the rate of extraction of tea saponins and shorten the processing time. To solve the product identification problems, we used chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to identify the active ingredient of the product. And develop in line with the preventive application and product is stable and appropriate pesticide formulations such as solids or liquids. And, we set up the extraction and purification process of tea saponin inCamellia oleifera meal. By establishing gravimetric analysis of contents of tea saponinin Camellia oleifera meal, the content of tea saponin in Camellia oleifera meal is 12.3%. And, test the toxicity of Nematodes with extract compounds, under 95% confidence interval, LC50 is 1881μg/mL. With the polity of reducing use of chemical pesticides, the development of indigenous biopesticide industry will be able to accelerate the registration of these biopesticide. However, the technical bottleneck of biopesticide is stabilizing technique. The fungal research laboratory of TACTRI has collected many fungal resources. The laboratory has developed powdered form and bait formulations for Beauveria bassiana, but these two formulations are not stable in ambient temperature, and need to be stored in cold place. This year, we will focus on UV resistance formulation for microbial preparation and solving UV degradation problem in the B. bassiana product. Research and development of agricultural biomaterials. This is a 4 years’ project. In order to decrease insecticides amounts used on crops with successive harvesting and to lower the residues of pesticides, the main objectives of this project as following: (1) to develop sex pheromone lures of insect pests of crops with successive harvesting, (2) to develop the techniques of lures using in the fields, and (3) to develop their IPM system with pheromones. The methods used in the project are to establish the rearing techniques of insect pests first for supplying insects for various tests; to observe the Insect behavior of reproduction for references of extraction of sex pheromones and their bioassay; to R&D the formulation of lures and their techniques of application; and to integrate pheromones and to evaluate their effects in the crops with successive harvesting. The sex pheromone lure of the cucumber moth, Diaphania indica, the attractant of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, and their techniques used in the fields will have been developed through these 4 years. Based on the no attractiveness of sex pheromone on the males of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, in the past, the related attractans of the legume pod borerwill be discussed. The integrated controlling methods with pheromones will be to develop in the crops with successive harvesting. This project is focusing on improvement and innovation of the safety and efficacy of pesticide formulations. Through development of plant protective materials, we expect to select safe active ingredient and new formulation especially for control root-knot nematodes. Root-knot nematodes cause a lot loss and damages in plants. Due to the life cycle of root-knot nematodes is short, the disease control difficulty increase. Today, most nematocides are toxic and environment unfriendly, so there is a need to development a safety nematocide. Biopesticide is an alternative way to control diseases caused by nematodes. The goal of this project is to select a potential microorganism to control the density of root-knot nematodes in soil, and also to develop a suitable media for culturing the potential microorganism. Bacillus thuringiensis is well known as an effective bio-insecticidal bacterium. It could produce the insecticidal crystal proteins to kill insects, provide plant growth regulators, and secrete antibiotics. In recent years, due to the rise of environmental awareness, it attaches more importance to environment polluted by chemical and rational drug use. This study is focused on development the mixture methods of B. thuringiensis and chemical pesticides to reduce the amount of use. Also to add the multifunctional of B. thuringiensis resources to restrain pests and enhance plant health. We evaluate the pest control effects of mixing B. thuringiensis and reduction chemical agents, also test microbial agents. Then, to select appropriate microbial and chemical pesticides for B. thuringiensis, to integrate B. thuringiensis and other pesticides, so we could design the safe mode of field application. Over four thousand species of aphid known to exist worldwide, around 250 of those are considered serious harm to crops. Aphids also frequently carry viruses which infect a host plant as the indirect injury. The intensive use of insecticides to control aphids has led to widespread resistance to many classes of insecticide. The study is to research and development the new botanical insecticide for control of Aphids. We will use impregnation and Leaf dipping methods to detect the allied toxicity function of single and/or mixture plant materials on Aphids The compositions of optimal formulation, such as adjuvant, vegetable oils and emulsifiers will also be investigated. Finally, we hope to develop a suitable mode and technique for aphids control on crop production. For the need of safe agriculture and organic agriculture, microbial pesticide products increased during these years. To achieve effective regulation and management, we will establish the strain identification technology of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma spp.. It can solve the weakness of registration system and promote the industry of development. Due to the bottleneck of inspection technology, those had previously been considered to be the same strain might be divided into different strains. In this project, we will attempt to develop new technologies to meet needs of regulation, administration, and development. We expect to enhance new product development and commercialization. Entomopathogenic fungi are naturally occurring fungal diseases of insects. The pest comes into contact with the entomo-pathogenic fungi spores upon germination which invade the insect body. The insect eventually dies of the disease releasing more entomopathogenic fungal spores into the surrounding area. Biopesticides based on entomopatho-genic fungi can, in some circumstances, provide direct substitutes for chemical insecticides which are acceptable to farmers, while reducing the threat of poisoning. Plutella xylostella ,Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee),Spodoptera exigua and S. litura are most important vegetable pests not only in Taiwan but also in the world. An investigation of local entomopatho-genic fungi was conducted by Biopesticide Department, Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute. A total of 120 isolates were isolated from infected insects. Metarhizium anisopliae ,Nomuraea rileyi ,Beanveria bassiana and Verticillum lecanii were the frequent species in Taiwan. In order to develop the non-chemical control methods, this project will develop entomogenous fungi products of controlling insect pests in the fields. Evaluation of appropriate pesticide use and safety study. In pesticide registration , some ofthe use of pesticides have lack of PHI, high priority to the review of pharm aceutical residues in the crop harvest on the reasonableness of the PHI. For early testing of pesticide residue levels commissioned under-reporting of analytical results, gather information abroad subsided, data collection for future verification testing is incomplete. For high detection rate and safe harvest inconsistent, select vegetable residue trials conducted for the pharmaceutical crops reasonable safety in the closing period of the development of validation.
其他研究人員 謝奉家 黃郁容 曾經洲 楊尚勳 王惠亮 林振文 宋孟真 柯燕珍 蘇俞丞 洪巧珍 陳昭瑩 涂青宇 江珮瑜 陳清玉 袁秋英 江致民 梁瑩如
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