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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 建立雜糧與特作產業加值化技術與分級制度
計畫名稱(英文) The Establishment of Grain and Special Industry Value - added Technology and Grading System
文獻分類 其它
計畫編號 106農科-8.2.5-子-T1
計畫主辦人 林祐瑩
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會茶業改良場茶作課
全程計畫年 2017年 ~ 2017年
中文關鍵字 機能性成分;亞麻籽;保健作物;製茶技術;洛神葵;生物活性;甘藷;雜交育種;保存期限;文山包種茶;產量;蕨類;臺灣特色茶;育種;水源區;尿酸調節;植物新藥;官能品評;複合熱源烘箱;乾燥機;熱處理;胺基酸;品質;紫錐花;洛神葵;繁殖;管理模式;異黃酮;枸杞癭蜱;小南薑;黃嘌呤氧化酶;大南薑;茶園;生育;烘焙;採摘;優良農業栽培條件;小米;抑制發芽;大豆;特色茶;臺灣藜;乾燥器;品種;育種;最佳賞味期;紫錐菊;葉用枸杞;樹豆;分子標誌;選育;貯存;咖啡;包裝
英文關鍵字 Functional ingredient;Flaxseed;Medicinal crops;Tea manufacturing technology;Roselle;Biological activity;Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas);Cross breeding;Expiration date;Wenshan Paochong Tea;Yield;Ferns;Taiwan unique teas;Breeding;Water District;uric a
中文摘要 (一)國產大豆營養評估及機能產品開發 持續進行作物種原庫重要大豆品系之胺基酸評估及機能成分分析,另進行大豆製品風味探討評估,開發國產大豆特色。藉由胺基酸及異黃酮等機能成分評估,加上大豆風味之研究探討,做為開發機能性產品之方向。預期研究結果可凸顯國產大豆風味,以提高其競爭力,吸引消費者選用國產大豆豆漿,有助於增加大豆種植面積,提升糧食自給率。 (二)本土青草藥作物應用於尿酸調節之研發(三) 高尿酸血症易引發痛風、腎結石、高血壓、心血管及糖尿病等疾病。台灣罹患高尿酸血症之比率極高,造成龐大醫療支出及長照人力耗損。本計畫以體外黃嘌呤氧化? (xanthine oxidase, XO) 抑制活性評估具調節尿酸潛力之青草藥萃取物,並就篩選出的作物鑑定其活性成分,優化其萃取製程,並以動物模式驗證調節尿酸之功效,以提供產業應用於未來進行調節尿酸產品之開發 。 (三)甘藷塊根抑芽技術之開發 由於臺灣甘藷休眠期較短,無法因應需要長時間儲運的外銷甘藷需求,因此藉由發展熱處理抑制甘藷發芽的技術,控制特定水溫與浸泡時間使甘藷塊根生長點發芽受阻或不發芽,延長甘藷塊根在常溫下的保存時間,使甘藷塊根能夠因應外銷長時間儲運的條件,增加臺灣甘藷進行外銷的機會。 (四)葉用枸杞品種選育及機能性產品研發與應用 本計畫以葉用枸杞品種選育及機能性產品開發為研究重點,目前國內葉用枸杞之栽培,因植株具刺、蟲害(癭蜱)及果實具苦味等問題造成種植及推廣上的困難,亟需改善。故本年度擬進行枸杞種原及雜交枸杞實生系進行適應性評估,依可食用比例及有效成分含量高的地方種/品系作為選育目標進行篩選。本年度將評估石灰硫磺合劑與修剪對癭蜱防治的效果,以提供癭蜱防治之新方法。另也進行葉用枸杞葉片等對小鼠調節血糖之活性評估。 (五)紫錐菊機能性成分分析及利用 紫錐花於臺灣已經建立原料栽培與生技產品之生產技術,為加強臺灣紫錐花產業的國際競爭力,有必要往植物新藥研發預作準備,本計畫擬建立紫錐花主要指標成分分析方法與指紋圖譜,探討不同收穫時間、不同栽培區域以及貯存條件對於紫錐花主要指標成分之影響。在植物新藥申請指引文件中所列應陳述之文件內容包括:原料之生產地點、氣候、肥料、栽培方式、產量、成分、多年期多批次等相關資料亦將一併建立。除此之外,紫錐花原料在固定條件下萃取後,經過濃縮及再稀釋後產物指標成分之變化也將進行探討。 (六)紫錐菊與亞麻選育 為開發中部地區保健植物,本研究為選育紫錐菊及油用亞麻等主題。在亞麻選育工作持續進行品系試驗及不同播種期試驗,以選育生育期短豐產之品系及探考不同播種期下生育期變化。而在紫錐菊改良中,持續利用105年選育紫錐菊族群進行選育工作,以期選育豐產及多花梗之植株。 (七)洛神葵雜交育種及原生觀賞蕨類經濟栽培技術之研究 一、本計畫擬蒐集國內外之洛神葵 (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)品種(系),選拔高產、具觀賞潛力及高機能成分等之品種(系)當作雜交親本,以雜交育種方法培育優良後代,提升洛神葵之產量與品質。 本計畫進行洛神葵新品系比較試驗及雜交後裔純化固定。(1)選育優良之雜交後代,增加洛神葵加工材料之多樣性。(2)選育質優高產之雜交後代,增加單位面積產量,增加農民收益。(3)豐富人工栽培品種之種類,增加消費者選擇之機會,提升消費之意願。(4)優良品種推廣農民栽培,可擴大生產面積,提升產業規模。二、臺灣位於歐亞大陸板塊與菲律賓海洋板塊碰撞帶,且因早期冰河作用之結果,造成非常複雜的地形地貌,垂直落差將近4000公尺,期間更有北回歸線從中貫穿,因此具有寒帶、溫帶、亞熱帶,熱帶等多種氣候型,使得境內蕨類資源豐富。本計畫蒐集原生觀賞蕨類種原,預期建立潛力觀賞蕨類組織培養繁殖模式,研發成果進行產學合作及技轉,增加計畫生產效益。 (八)發展原住民有機農業及其特色農產品加值化之研究 臺東地區原住民部落保存許多具發展潛力之特色作物,如:小米、樹豆、臺灣藜及洛神葵等,惟相關作物之品種、有機栽培技術、病蟲害調查及加工技術等,產業價值鏈並無妥適建構,無法發揮其應有價值。近年來原住民部落因勞動人口外流嚴重,從事農業生產人力老化,極需引導部落青年回流,投入年輕人力,原住民鄉鎮休耕地比例高,極待活化利用。本計畫為建構臺東地區原住民特色作物產業價值鏈,需結合農業科學研究及產業推廣,以活絡部落經濟,維護農業生態永續發展及提升產業競爭力。 (九)國產精品咖啡品種分子鑑定及品質特性分析 國內咖啡生豆產量約874公噸,產值約6億多元,透過本計畫建立之國內咖啡品種鑑定及各大產區風味特色,可推廣及應用於農民及業者,協助生產者能更加瞭解自身生產過程中缺點及優點分析落點,更加朝精品咖啡消費市場對於優質產品的期待與要求,由此改善、調整產程,以提升臺灣咖啡之競爭優勢。 (十)茶葉加工機具精準化之研究改良 瓦斯與電混和型烘箱研發與應用 一般烘箱所消耗瓦數約5千瓦,但一般家庭的無法提供這麼高的電量,故無法乾燥食材。甲種乾燥機與乙種乾燥機以汽油、柴油或是瓦斯來做熱源,用電量相對較低。但甲種乾燥機佔地面積過大,且用於大量乾燥,乙種乾燥機在使用上不方便。烘箱不使用瓦斯或是汽油來做熱源,其原因為一般烘箱要求的溫度精準性要較高,以汽油或是瓦斯熱源的溫度準確性不佳。故開發瓦斯與電混和型雛形烘箱,主要熱源由瓦斯(八成)提供,控制溫度的熱源由電(二成)提供。瓦斯與電混合熱源設計能減少用電量,使一般家庭也能乾燥食材。 (十一)茶園友善耕作管理模式之研究 近年來,消費者重視健康安全衛生之茶產品。在茶樹栽培上,茶園管理模式需朝向減藥無毒、合理施肥、有機化、生態化之友善環境農法,而傳統慣行茶園噴施殺草劑防治雜草,已構成風險因子。本計畫除建立友善環境茶園耕作模式,及其適製之新興特色茶類製作,以促進茶葉永續經營,另評估殺草劑對於茶葉及環境之影響,作為風險控管之依據。 (十二)製茶技術及多元化產品之開發利用 數千年來「茶」一直是中國人生活不可或缺的產品,由最早做為「醫藥」用途,發展為日常生活、保健飲品或安全的有機飲品;在近百年來,製茶過程則是不斷迅速改良突破,技術大為精進;近十年來,則在多元化利用方面蓬勃發展。隨著社會經濟環境的變化及消費大眾的需求,茶類的風味需要不斷的創新與變化,才能更廣為消費者所接受。且由於飲食精緻化與外食化,食安問題又紛擾不斷引起民眾莫大恐慌,人們除了重視飲食之保健與養生外還要求食的安全,如何吃的健康又安全成為切身話題與當務之急。因此,為加強茶葉的加工技術與多元化利用,以提升臺灣茶產業的競爭力,本計畫針對下列主題進行研究。一、「包裝貯存對臺灣特色茶品質之影響與改進策略之研究」;二、「改良式焙香型條形包種茶製造技術研發;三、「純天然健康茶糕點之開發利用」。
英文摘要 1. Nutrient Evaluation and Functional-product Development of Domestic Soybean Amino acid evaluation and functional analysis of important soybean lines of National Plant Genetic Resources Center will be carried out continuously, moreover, the flavor of soybean products will be evaluated in order to develop the characteristics of domestic soybean. With the evaluation of functional components such as amino acids and isoflavones, and the study of soybean flavor, which is the direction of developing functional products. The results are expected to highlight the domestic soybean flavor, in order to enhance its competitiveness, to attract consumers to choose domestic soybean milk, to help increase soybean acreage and to improve food self-sufficiency rate. 2. Development of indigenous herbs applied in uric acid regulation (III) Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for causing gout, kidney stones, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. There is a large population of patients suffer from hyperuricemia in Taiwan, which results in a huge medical expense and a great long-term care labor force. The project will evaluate the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of herb crops extract. In order to apply in future industrial production, this project will identify the active ingredients of effective herb extracts , optimize the extraction process, and validate the uric acid regulation effect by animal model. 3. Development sprout control technique of sweet potato tuber Sweet potato varieties of Taiwan were short dominance, and couldn’t satisfy the long storage period for exporting demand. Developing heat treatment for sprouting control technique prolong the storage period in room temperature, and provide the opportunity to export Taiwan’s sweet potato to other countries by inhibited tuber growing point. Breeding of Lycium chinense Miller and development of functional products The main object of this project is focused on the breeding and development of functional foods of Lycium chinense Miller. The properties of thorns, insect pest (gall) and bitter in fruits lead to difficulty in cultivation and promotion.We will estimate adaptation of local varieties and various lines in Taiwan and compare to effective component contents of leaves from various lines/varieties this year. We will also assess the effect of lime sulfur and trimming on insect pest (gall). Furthermore, biological activities of extracts of leaves will be estimated. 4. Analysis of functional compositions of Echinacea purpurea and their use In Taiwan, the cultivation of Echinacea purpurea and manufacture of nutraceutical products have been established. In order to increase the capability of Taiwan biotech industry, it is necessary to develop botanical drugs of Echinacea in international competition. In the project, the chemical fingerprints and indicator compositions of Echinacea would be investigated. The effects of location of cultivation, time of harvest, and plant material stability over different time and storage environment would be investigated. Multi-batches, multi-years of the above mentioned conditions would be studied. In addition, the chemical profiles variation of plant extracts after concentration and dilution would be investigated. 5. Breeding of Purple Coneflower and 0il Flax For the purpose of newly introduced medicinal crop developmentin of Central Taiwan Area, the two major objectives of this study, firstly is to the screen of elite high yield and early maturity flaxseed lines which provided from selected excellent lines in 2016.In addition, sowing date and observation trial of flax lines which introduced from the Germplasm Resource Information Network (GRIN), USDA or the National Plant Genetic Resources Center, R.O.C. Secondly to continuing improving Echinacea population selected from 2016, as to select the high yield potential with more peduncle line for future breeding purpose. Cross breeding of roselle and studies on the cultivation technique of ornamental ferns Roselle is one of the agricultural products for the most important cash-income in Taitung County. It is immensely grown throughout the county, in such townships as Chin-feng, Taimali, Peinan, Luyeh, Dawu, and suburbs of Taitung City as well, covering as many as 150~300 hectares of land.Calyxes of roselle make tasty succade, jam, roselle tea and other processing food. Since the calyxes abundantly contain nutritious components, it is beneficial for the health.Roselle has been selected by Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, as a potential crop worth further development and research. Such being the case, recently an advanced project is undertaken for the purposes of collecting overseas and domestic varieties of roselle, sorting out its growth tendency and types of the fruit. Hybrid progenies which derived from the combinations will be selected according to the breeding method, and improving quality and quantity of the crop.Rich the types of cultivated varieties, increase consumer choice opportunities, enhance the consumer's widhes.Promote the farmers cultivated varieties, it can expand the production ares, to enhance the industrial scale.The collision of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Plate and early glaciation together have formed the complicated landscape of Taiwan. Because of its remarkable vertical height difference up to 4,000 meters, and the Tropic of Cancer passing through, there are subfrigid zone, temperate zone, semitropics and tropics climate in Taiwan despite its limited size, supporting abundant natural fern resources.This program include native medical fern , Collection and investigate their agricultural characteristics as leaf length, width, frond type, and sorus type. Test under different seasons temperature for the germination rate and speed of spores and prothallium and sporophyte production time are also going to do. Also, the best organic manure grade for medical fern species should be decides respectively.In this plan, we will establish production and cultivation of medicinal pteridophytes mode, help farmers carry out econommic cultivation and R&D results for industry-university cooperation and technology transfer, increase program effectivensee. 6. The research of the developing aboriginal organic agriculture and the value-added actions of agriculture specialty products There are many specialty crops with potential development, such as: millet, pigeon pea, Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. and roselle, etc., have been preserved in the Aboriginal tribes of Taitung, However, the chain of industry value, organic cultivation techniques, pest and disease investigation and processing technology of these crops, have not been set up appropriately, so they could not take advantage of the proper value. In recent years, due to the labor population exodus of Aboriginal, and it engaged the manual labor in agricultural production becoming an ageing phenomenon. It’s much-needed to guide young tribal people back to involve young force. The proportion of fallow ground in Aboriginal counties is high which is in dire need of revitalization. The aim of this project is to construct the Aboriginal specialty crops’ chain of industry value in the area of Taitung. And it requires a combination of scientific research and industrialization of agricultural marketing to active the tribal economy, maintain agro-ecological sustainable development and enhance industrial competitiveness. 7. Study of Molecular Identification and Characteristics of Quality of Taiwan Coffee Domestic coffee production of about 874 tons of beans, the output value of about 600 million yuan, through the stablishment of the project to identify the domestic coffee varieties and the characteristics of the major producing areas flavor can be xtended and applied to farmers and industry to help producers to better understand their own The shortcomings of the roduction process and the advantages of the impact point, and more towards the high-quality coffee consumption market expectations and requirements for quality products, thus improving and adjusting labor process to enhance the competitive advantage of Taiwan's coffee. 8. The Development of Tea Making Machine Hybrid dryer development and application: The dryer with the tray consumers 5000W to dry, but the family can’t provide the high power, so we can’t dry the food. The automatic and continuous dryer is too big to place, and it use for producing. It is not convenient to use the semi-automatic dryer. The heat source power of the dryer with the tray is not the gas or oil, because the precision of the temperature is worse. We design the dryer of hybrid power with the gas and oil. The heat source of the gas is the main power and the second heat source is the electric power. This kind of design can save the electric power, let every can dry the food. 9. Study on Ecological-Friendly Cultuvation Model of Tea Garden In recent years, safety tea products were paid much attention by consumers. The tea cultivation model needs to be adjusted to non-toxic, lower fertilizers, organic, ecological-friendly farming. Besides, it has the risk that herbicides were used to control weeds in current conventional tea garden. In the project, lower-input management farming technology and its suitable special tea type would be established to promote the sustainable tea industry. Moreover, the project established an assessment of the environmental impact of herbicides on tea gardens as a basis for risk control. 10. Study on development of tea processing and multiplicity of tea products In this research, we have three projects to develop. First, effect of package and storage on the quality of Taiwan unique teas and the study of improvement strategies. To analyses the tea chemical contents.(Catechins, TF and TB) and to evaluate the qualities of the tea after different storage treatments . Second, the research and development of modified medium roasting strip type Paochong Tea manufacturing technology. Try to use heavy baking technology to improve aroma and taste defects of strip type Paochong. Third, study on the manufacture of health-preserving tea pastries and puddings with tea. We try to use different kinds of tea(Including, green tea, Wienshang paochungtea, Oolong tea, Tie-guan-ying tea, GABA tea, black tea...etc.), farm produce, livestock products and other foodstuffs to develop prepared tea meals which are delicious, natural, health and safety. By the way, it could help to increase utilization of fresh tea leaves.
其他研究人員 劉威廷 洪子桓 李文南 賴瑞聲 蕭國忠 陳裕星 賴永昌 簡靖華 劉千如 黃玉如 黃正宗 陳敬文 黃哲倫 楊美珠 陳俊良 王志瑄 陳振義 蕭孟衿 陳鐶斌 黃惟揚 胡智益 黃校翊 羅士凱 蘇彥碩 張如華 翁世豪 劉秋芳 任珮君
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