輸入帳號

輸入密碼

忘記密碼 | 加入會員

政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 開發雜糧與特作生物防治、非農藥防治資材及有機栽培整合性管理技術
計畫名稱(英文) Development of biological control, non-pesticide control materials and organic cultivation management technology in upland and special crops.
文獻分類 其它
計畫編號 106農科-8.2.3-子-V1
計畫主辦人 張同吳
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 農委會花蓮區農業改良場作物改良課
全程計畫年 2017年 ~ 2017年
中文關鍵字 相剋作用;玉米;甘藷;毛豆;洛神葵;非農藥防治資材;生物性除草劑;藥用植物;液肥;仙草;紅豆;種子調製;植物病害綜合防治管理;有機農業;休耕地;精油;生態茶園;生物多樣性;膳食纖維;樹豆;馬鈴薯;種子倉儲;白芷;特色作物;有機栽培;小米;輪作制度;大豆;寧夏枸杞;小麥;蘿蔔;胡蘿蔔素;非農藥防治資材
英文關鍵字 Allelopathy;maize;Sweet potato;Vegetable Soybeans;roselle;Non-pesticide materials;Bioherbicides;medicinal plants;Liquid fertilizer;Mesona;Vigna angularis;Seed processing;Integrated pest management;Organic agriculture;Fallow Land;Essential oil;Ecological T
中文摘要 有機作物栽培、產品加工及其資材、種子之研究開發與商品化利用 利用天然植物資材開發作物炭疽病及香蕉黃葉病非農藥防治技術暨生物性雜草抑制劑以應用於有機農業栽培管理 有機栽培管理為目前作物生產的趨勢,本研究目的主要為開發臺東地區經濟栽培作物炭疽病及香蕉黃葉病有機防治技術,和開發植物源作為生物性雜草抑制劑之雜草有機管理技術。本計畫研究目標包括(1)收集並篩選在地歸化或強勢生長植物-大花咸豐草、狗尾草等進行精油及純露萃取,利用抗菌試驗篩選植物源萃取精油露、(2)建立大花咸豐草抗菌成份特性分群、(3)進行切花保鮮、儲物保鮮試驗、(4)探討複方型抗菌精油混合液商品化可能性、(5)作物病害田間防治試驗,建立作物防治技術1-2種、(6) 建立香蕉黃葉病PCR檢測技術、(7)收集並篩選在地歸化或強勢生長植物,如利用金合歡、構樹等植物進行萃取。將篩選植物材料萃取液應用於臺灣田間栽培區常見雜草抑制試驗,如香附子(Cyperus rotundus)、大花咸豐草(Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata)、蒺藜草(Cenchrus echinatus)、紫花霍香薊(Ageratum houstonianum)等,以開發雜草管理技術、(8)雜草抑制試驗將區分萌前、萌後類型雜草抑制劑探討,並以HPLC及GCMS等方式進行抑制成分分析,希望利用易取得之植物物種,簡易操作步驟、及符合有機資材規範程序,開發植物源雜草抑制劑;預期利用本研究之初步結果,發展出新穎且安全的栽培技術以應用於有機栽培管理。 有機紅豆與馬鈴薯輪作栽培下對有機農田田間雜草相、產量及病蟲害之影響 有機紅豆與馬鈴薯輪作栽培下對有機農田田間雜草相、產量及病蟲害之影響。 1.春作有機紅豆、夏作綠肥與水稻及秋裡作馬鈴薯輪作制度下栽培技術之改進。 2.此輪作制度下土壤肥力、田間雜草相、農藝性狀、產量及病蟲害之探討。 3.舉辦秋裡作馬鈴薯栽培技術管理講習與示範觀摩會. 建構有機紅豆與馬鈴薯之輪作制度,並對春作有機紅豆栽培技術之改進,建立春作有機紅豆之生產模式,夏作則配合旱作綠肥種植與水田水稻種植,兩者收穫後,種植秋裡作有機馬鈴薯,進一步了解種植水稻與種植綠肥後對後作馬鈴薯田間雜草相、病蟲害與產量之影響。以建立有機紅豆與有機馬鈴暑之生產模式,提供有機農戶栽培兩種作物之參考。 國產有機甘藷製備多元營養、銀髮族食品-技術建立及品質評估 「有機農業」、「有機農產品&食品」是近年全世界流行之重要農業,食品-「專有名詞」、「高品質、安全性高」、「高價位」之名詞及流行趨勢,國內有機農業&農產品在農政單位及業者努力下正蓬勃發展,市場需求性及潛力一直被看好。國產有機甘藷具有亮麗之外觀、色澤、含有豐富之膳食纖維、維生素A、礦物質等機能性成分,是重要天然抗氧化膳食纖維之蔬果,另具有特殊之風味、香氣及質地(口感)是國內熟悉、接受性高,且具全年供給之蔬果。目前大多供料理美食(炒,煮,炸)及即時食品、休閒食品使用,全方位、大量加工製成農產加工品較少,如何利用、開發多元化有機農產品十分值得產、官、學、研投入相關研究與核心加工技術開發。在台灣甘藷常被公認為集天然、營養、保健、美食於一身的根莖作物,近年更被開發成休閒型食品。有機甘藷亦是十分搶手的天然、安全作物、食材及產品,但有機甘藷目前大都供鮮食市場使用,許多外型較差、輕微蟲害之甘藷甚少被利用(大都供做飼料、堆肥),如何有效利用、並開發具美味、易生理消化、吸收之營養&保健化之銀髮族-甘藷系列產品,成為未來市場新商機及挑戰。本研究團隊以國產有機甘藷為原料,擬開發(1)滲透&軟化-多重配方&風味之甘藷製備技術(2)甘藷全果機能飲品及其黏度、消化適口性研究。期盼能針對未來不同消費族群,感官嗜好性及營養需求做修飾技術開發。 選育具遺傳多樣性適合有機蘿蔔栽培用品系和種子生產術技術 有機農業已進展到不是只用有機農法栽培,尚推薦用遺傳多樣性的OP品種,因為遺傳多樣性的OP品種可以適應未來環境變遷的逆境,而且遺傳多樣性等同營養多樣性是有機食品比較營養主要原因,本試驗供試蘿蔔材料都是OP品系, 蘿蔔屬低溫敏感型作物,所以蘿蔔採種時植株或肉質根需要接受低溫完成春化作用才能開花,然後在12 小時以上長日照就可以開花結種子,因此適合於台灣低溫季節採種。本試驗擬繼續從已蒐集的蘿蔔品系中選拔(A)有機根菜用蘿蔔品系和採種試驗。(B)有機芽菜用蘿蔔品系和種子生產試驗。本年度擬繼續進行春化處理試驗(1)成株採種法:選成熟品質好的肉質蘿蔔根進行低溫春化處理,(2)半成株採種法:選用採收時蘿蔔的肉質根未充分膨大但已呈現品種特徵的蘿蔔進行低溫春化處理之採種試驗。 豆類、水稻及蔬菜作物不同輪作系統對有機栽培農田土壤肥力及作物生產之影響評估(1/3) 本研究的目的在探討豆類、水稻及蔬菜作物不同輪作系統對有機栽培農田土壤肥力及作物 生產之影響,試驗結果將提供高屏地區建立適宜討論作物之依據及農友實施有機栽培時之參考依。 中草藥寧夏枸杞安全栽培與創新 枸杞的果實是中國與台灣常用的中藥補氣用藥材,可以增加免疫功能、增進表皮抵抗力和促進新生組織生長,是台灣中醫院使用量極大的藥材。農業試驗所農田自2010年起已引種進行寧夏枸杞正確基原植物的栽培,初步在栽培模式的建立、活性成分分析和保健產品研發上已具有結果,本計畫係在原有的基礎上,改進其栽培技術與進行品種選育,使得適合市場及商品化。 仙草育種與提升品質栽培技術開發 仙草為唇型花科之多年生常異交作物,本站位於關西鎮規劃仙草未來工作目標為:1.育成乾株產量及乾葉產量高、配合茶改場開發茶包製程之半直立型品種、香氣佳及葉凝膠強度高。耐低溫且扦插成活率高。葉片不易褐化,收穫期晚避開雨季,以利採收及乾燥作業。2.進行仙草健康管理栽培試驗,就合理的田間耕作制度及病蟲害生物防治措施進行調查研究及尋求解決之道。3.仙草凝膠與儲藏條件研究及小型農機具開發研究。 活化休耕地-小麥肥培管理試驗 近年全球極端氣候及其他因素導致小麥主要生產國產量已不敷需求,甚至須向他國進口之窘境,故許多國家開始限縮小麥出口。我國小麥多仰賴進口,鑑於麥類製品已成為國人主食之ㄧ,為避免小麥國際市場供不應求及提高我國糧食安全之必要,推動本土小麥的栽培,提高國內糧食自?率,將是緩解糧食短缺的因應之道。過去對於小麥之研究多侷限於中部地區,且作物施肥手冊亦無小麥的施肥量及施肥方法,故為提高小麥糧食自給率,本計畫將逐年建立北部地區小麥肥培管理技術,以提升農民轉種小麥之意願,增加休耕地活化之利用率。 仙草有機栽培整合管理技術研究 本研究進行仙草有機栽培密度試驗。 毛豆重要蟲害非農藥防治資材與技術之研發 近年來因消費意識高漲,對農產品的安全更加重視,尤其是農藥殘留問題,故,如何生產安全之作物,保障消費者食用之安全,乃最重要的課題,故本計劃乃針對毛豆重要害蟲發生生態,進行調查及利用非農藥之資材如油類及中藥材等為防治資材,以綜合防治方法進行毛豆重要害蟲種類防治研究,供農政單位及農友參考,以減少農藥殘留問題,保障消費者食用之安全。 花蓮區藥用保健作物有機栽培技術之研究 本計畫之目的為收集保健植物種原,評估其利用性,建立繁殖栽培技術。建立保健作物白芷之有機栽培技術,提高保健作物之品質與產量,進而開發為優質保健植物產品,增加農民之收入。 花蓮區有機雜糧作物栽培技術改進及研發 鑒於國人對食品的安全問題日益重視,因此,如何生產安全並符合經濟效益的農產品是重要的研究方向。本試驗以臺灣育成的非基因改造大豆及仙草品種為材料,篩選適合花蓮地區有機栽培之品種,並建立有機栽培技術。以確保消費者健康並增進農民收益。 臺東地區特色作物輪作病蟲害有機管理體系之建立 調查確認臺東地區 樹豆、洛神葵及臺灣藜病蟲害種類、發生生態、地理分布及週期等相關基本資料,供有機防治技術開發之依據 。針對小米、樹豆、洛神葵及臺灣藜重要病蟲害進行非農藥管理技術試驗。 液肥發酵菌種開發與應用 一、液肥為茶農經常使用於養分補充的液體肥料,多以粕類調配高氮發酵液肥,作葉面噴施或澆灌於土壤中施肥,能迅速補充氮肥。施用有機液肥可使茶樹產量增加、提高其單位芽密度及百芽重並增進其生長速度(2010,商靜)。然菌株種類繁多,雖相同之液肥配方,加入不同菌種所產生之發酵產物亦不同。茶胺酸為茶樹重要之胺基酸,約佔茶葉總游離胺基酸的50%以上,其前驅物為麩胺酸,若能以有機液肥中之麩胺酸為評估指標,篩選具蛋白?分解酵素且發酵液中麩胺酸含量較高之菌株,針對提高茶樹中主要影響滋味之胺基酸-茶胺酸為目摽,期能開發適用高氮液肥之發酵菌種,在此同時亦進行赤葉枯病的對峙試驗,在噴施液肥時具有防治病害的效果,減少農友成本支出及提高茶葉品質。 有機茶園綠盲椿象防治技術之開發 高山茶為臺灣相當具有代表性的特色茶類,然不當使用農藥與化學肥料常造成土壤或集水區嚴重汙染,影響生態環境及食品安全。因此,推廣高山茶以有機管理的方式新植及轉作,為目前主要的研究方向。經營有機初期,病蟲害相改變為慣行轉有機的限制因子之一,高海拔茶區又以綠盲椿象引起的危害最為嚴重。本研究擬開發綠盲椿象有機管理技術,並應用簡易型自動化器械,降低綠盲椿象之危害。 農業生態系之茶園長期生態研究 農業屬於生態系一環,因人為對農地栽培管理頻度增加,致使農田之生物多樣性減少。茶園生態系亦屬於農業生態系之中,早期茶園行慣行栽培,茶園中僅有茶樹單一植物相,對於其他物種而言,食物來源僅只有來自茶樹,而人們為了使茶葉產量增加,大量使用農藥、肥料等,壓抑其他物種生存,因此也漸使茶園生物多樣性減少。有機茶栽培管理由於不施用化學肥料、除草劑與化學農藥等,使得雜草及病蟲害防治困難,再加上臺灣茶園處於高溫多濕環境,使茶農投入有機茶生產比例僅佔0.4%左右。若能藉由試驗調查瞭解有機茶園生態系變化,可提高有機茶之產量與品質,因此調查中、低海拔有機生態茶園動植物相種類及紀錄,分析並探討在中、低海拔茶區生態茶園之生物多樣性的變化,做為採用生態法耕作之參考。 雜糧種子有機生產模式之研究 一、為因應市場有機玉米種子及有機青割玉米之需求,本計畫以現有栽培品種進行有機生產栽培模式,探討品種間之生育及產量表現,篩選出適合在有機栽培管理模式下之品種,並建立其生產基本資料,作為往後有機生產模式適合品種之選擇與市場需求之區隔。 二、建立食用大豆種子調製標準作業流程,以提高大豆種子潔淨度。 三、探討各種不同材料及包裝作業方式對於大豆儲藏種子發芽率和品質之影響,並藉此建立大豆種子最適儲藏模式。
英文摘要 R & D and Commecialization of Organic Farming , Processing , Materials , and Seed Developing genetic diversity cultivars and organic seed production of radish for organic farming Organic agriculture has been required to plant organic seed/seedling, and OP cultivars are also superior recommended for organic farming due to OP cultivars are much genetic diversity and may tolerance to stress environment, as well as The products of OP cultivars are much health for human due to much nutrient from diversity. In the research program, 41 OP cultivars of radish introduced around the world will be selected for root vegetable and baby radish use, and 5 lines (each root radish and baby radish) were selected with mass selection . For seed production, plants or roots of plant are required to low temperature application for meeting requirement of vernalization, then plant flowering in long day for seed production. these cultivars/lines of radish are selected for baby radish, the plants, unmature root, and mature roots will be harvest, then accept a period of low temperature for meeting vernalization requirement, finally these plants will be planted on field during low temperature season for seed production. Safety and innovation of Chinese traditional medicine Ningxia wolfberry cultural practice improvement The fruits ofLycium barbarum , Known as “gouqi” in China and Taiwan, is the most important tonic in the traditional Chinese medicine to reinforce “q I” (vital energy), to strengthen the superficial resistance, and to promote the discharge of pus and the growth of new tissue. It has long been used as an anti- perspirant, anti-diuretic or atonic. It is the topmost traditional Chinese medicine of Chinese herb doctor’s hospital in Taiwan.The plants ofL. barbarumwill be planted at our farm of TARI in Taiwan. Study of seed collecting at flats farm and cultural practice especially at GAP will be investigated continually. We had the previous results according to the experiments of 2010 in our farm and laboratory. The previous results such as breeding,active ingredient analysis and healthy-care products had been in progress. Now, we want to modify these results in order to satisfy the commercial market. Allocation of mesona industries with associated technology development Mesona are a labiatae perennial outcrossing crop. The cultivative goals of mesona at Kuan-hsi Experiment Station located in Kuan-hsi Township are as follows: 1. breeding high yield in dry stem strains and dry leaves. Moderate creeping vines to save the harvesting labor. With good flavor and high leaf gel strength. Resistant to low temperature and high survival rate of cuttings. Leaves are hard to browning with late harvest property to avoid the rainy season and facilitate the harvesting and drying operations. 2.To conduct mesona health management study on reasonable field cropping systems as well as investigations and solutions on disease and pest biological control problems. 3. Research of storage time cost optimization gel in mesona and harvester development. Activation fallow - Wheat fertilizer management test The world's extreme climate and other factors led to wheat producing countries has been insufficient demand, so many countries began to limit wheat exports. In order to avoid the shortage of wheat in the international market and the need to improve food security in Taiwan, it is necessary to promote the cultivation of local wheat and to improve the self-sufficiency rate of grain in Taiwan, which will be a response to the shortage of grain. In the past, the study on wheat was mostly confined to the Taiwan central region, and no manual fertilizer for wheat was used to fertilize wheat. In order to improve the self-sufficiency rate of wheat grain, the project will establish the management technology of wheat fertilization in northern areas yearly, Wheat, and as a reference for the activation of fallow land. Study on integrated management techniques for organic farming in Mesona In this study is building the cultivation density of Mesona organic cultivation . Development of non-pesticide materials and techniques to control the important pests of vegetable soybean 一、For years farmers have been using chemical pesticides to control insect pests. It was much effective but caused a lot of effects such as environmental pollution, pests resistance and residue etc. The project is use to non-pesticide materials, for example, summer oil and Chinese medic, oils…etc, For the integrated control the Vegetable Soybeans Important pest. It can be reduced in the field Pesticides uses can be greatly reduced, and portent the consumer to eat safety. Different kinds of non-pesticides were screened in the laboratory for the control of pest, and the results showed that most of the non-pesticide screened provided good control of the pest. It is recommended that an IPM program integrated the vegetable soybean pest. The research of medicinal plant organic cultivation technology in Hualien area The purpose of this project is to establish the organic cultivation technology and to increase the yield and quality of Angelica dahurica.The results of this project will development the health products of medicinal plants and increase the income for farmers. Study on cultrue of organic upland food crops variety in Hualien area Owing to the people take the food safety much seriously than before, it's an important research aspect to product safety and economical effective agricultural product. We use non-GMOs soybeans and mesona cultivars which is planted in Taiwan to sift the fitness types out which are well-done planted in Hualien. And we found organic cultivate technology. To ensure the health of consumers and to promote famers received. Establishment of rotation management system for the diseases and pests on organic characteristic crops in Taitung To investigate the pests of the pigeon pea, roselle, and Chenopodium formosana, including the species identification, population dynamics, geographic distribution, and life cycle, for control them by organic techniques. Test the techniques for major pests on pigeon pea, roselle, and Chenopodium formosana. Application of liquid fertilizer fermentation 一、The farmers often apply organic liquid fertilizer to nutrient supplement, it's usually using soybean meal for high nitrogen fermentation liquid fertilizer manufacturing for foliar spray or watered soil fertilization.Application of organic liquid fertilizer can increase and improve the tea yield, unit bud density ,hunder-bud weight and enhance its growth rate (2010, shang).Theanine is one of important amino acids of tea, accounting for total free amino acids of tea leaf 50%.The precursor of theanine is glutamate,so we want to select the strains with the high protease activity by the glutamate content of organic liquid fertilizer as the target for the increase mainly affect the taste of the tea - theanine.We hope to develop the applicable high nitrogen liquid fertilizer fermentation bacteria, to improve the quality of tea to increase the income of farmers Develpoment of Control Techniques of Pale Green Plant Bug in Organic Tea Garden Taiwan Alpine (High Mountain Oolong) is quite representative in Taiwan. However, serious pollution of soil or watersheds are caused by overuse of chemical fertilizer and pesticides. It also affect the ecology and food safety. Thus, the promotion of organic management of tea in high mountain area is our main research direction. In the beginning of organic management, the changes of pests is one of the important limiting factor that may reduce the peoduction of tea. Among that, pale green plant bug lead to the most serious damage. In this study, we intend to develop organic pest control techniques and apply automated machinery for this bug. Agro-ecological system of long term ecological research for tea gardens Agricultural ecosystems are part of the result of human cultivation and management of agricultural land to increase the frequency, resulting in the loss of biodiversity of farmland. Tea is also an agricultural ecosystems among the ecosystems, the early line of conventional cultivation of tea, only a single A plant relative to, for other species, the only source of food only from the tea, and people in order to increase tea production, heavy use of pesticides, fertilizers, etc., to suppress the survival of other species, thus gradually reducing the tea fields of biological diversity Less. Organic tea cultivation and management because they do not use chemical fertilizers, herbicides and chemical pesticides, making the weed and pest control problems coupled with Taiwan's tea at high temperature and humidity environment, so that only the proportion of farmers into organic tea production About 0.4%. If investigation by testing organic tea garden ecosystem changes can increase the yield and quality of organic tea, so the survey, low-altitude organic tea garden ecology and plant and animal species relative to record, analyze and explore the medium and low altitude ecological tea plantation of tea changes in biological diversity, as a reference for using ecological farming methods. Research of organic grain crops seed production system and development 一、 In response to the market demand for organic corn seed and silage, this plan is conducted to investigate the performance and yield between varieties tested in organic farming system. The varieties suited for organic cultivation are screened, and their fundamental data of production are established. The varieties screened in this study might be utilized in the organic production and as a tool of market segmentation in the future.二、In order to improve seed cleanliness, the standard operation procedure (SOP) of soybean processing is studied and established. 三、The optimal storage model for soybean is established by investigating the effects of different packaging materials and methods on the emergence rates and quality of the stored seeds tested.
其他研究人員 龔財立 蘇彥碩 曾一航 廖伯基 林詠洲 林盈宏 紀芬蓮 侯金日 顏永福 黃啟鐘 吳昆崙 江伯源 郭寬福 湯雪溶 胡安仁 陳明昭 林義恭 陳正昇 王鐘和 莊愷瑋 簡靖華 黃正宗 寧方俞 曾信光 林駿奇 馮淑慧 蔡志賢 林儒宏 吳榮彬 陳明吟 翁世豪 陳文華 陳麗鈴 林資哲 劉千如 劉秋芳 蔡憲宗 劉芳吟 戴佳如
附件下載

回上一頁回首頁

你可在搜尋字串中使用邏輯運算符號及英文萬用字元 [|]表示OR;[&]表示AND;[!]表示NOT;[*/?]為英文萬用字元;["]前後加雙引號可做完全符合搜尋 範例:(種苗|seed)!瓜,表示關鍵字搜尋條件為包含種苗或seed但不能出現瓜,符合此條件的資訊即被找出。