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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 野生植物多樣性及系統分類學研究
計畫名稱(英文) Biodiversity and taxonomy of wild plants
文獻分類 其它
計畫編號 106農科-11.9.2-子-W1
計畫主辦人 許再文
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心植物組
全程計畫年 2017年 ~ 2017年
中文關鍵字 臺灣破傘菊;五加科;分類研究;孢子;狗尾草;資源調查;水社柳;底棲微藻;種原保存;保育優先次序;瀕絕植物;花粉;地衣;紫苞舌蘭;光保護;保育行動計畫;石灰石礦區;物種分布模式;台灣原始觀音座蓮;氣候變遷;矽藻;族群遺傳;菌根;細柄雙蓋蕨;水生植物;梯田;植生復育
英文關鍵字 Syneilesis intermedia;Araliaceae;taxonomic study;spore;Setaria viridis;inventory;Salix kusanoi;benthic microalgae;germplasm conservation;conservation priority list;endangered plants;pollen;lichens;Spathoglottis plicata;Photoprotection
中文摘要 野生植物基礎分類研究-五加科、狗尾草屬及孢粉電顯 一、依據文獻,臺灣產五加科植物10屬17種1變種。本研究針對五加科植物,進行命名的處理與文獻的比對,也包括各分類群之檢索表、描述、註記、棲地、分布與引證標本等。二、臺灣產狗尾草屬植物共有11種,本屬的小米及狗尾草2個種類因基因組小、雙倍體、生命週期短,目前已成為進行C4光合作用之新興模式植物。本研究擬建立臺灣產狗尾草屬各種之分子條碼,並據以分析臺灣產狗尾草屬各種之親緣關係,以及應用簡單重複序列(SSR)分析狗尾草之族群遺傳變異。三、孢粉學是研究孢粉形態的科學,種子植物的花粉粒內含種子植物的高度退化的雄配子體,和苔蘚和蕨類植物的孢子有許多同源性。被子植物中的雙子葉植物,其花粉大部分保留了遠古時代的外表形態,大多為3溝口形,單子葉植物花粉大多為單溝口,區分2群通常不難。本研究利用掃描式電子顯微鏡研究維管束植物的孢子與花粉。 野生植物分布調查及生理研究-蕨類、菌根菌、地衣、藻類、梯田植物 本計畫擬藉由水生植物、蕨類、菌根類及藻類等各物種資源調查與生物學研究,來建立台灣物種分布資料及其生物學基礎資訊,以提供環境監測、棲地復育及物種經營管理之參考資訊。內容包含探討棲地重疊之細柄雙蓋蕨與台灣原始觀音座蓮兩種蕨類之光環境適應性差異,並以光學顯微鏡進行活體觀察及記錄其生活史, 期望結果能提供珍稀蕨類-台灣原始觀音座蓮之保育與棲地維護參考,另外其生活史之活體觀察亦可當生物教材。進行西部地區石灰石廢棄礦區菌根菌調查,建立石灰石地型特殊棲地菌根菌組成基本資料,瞭解菌根菌共生對石灰石廢棄礦區植生回復之影響。建置中部地區高海拔枝狀地衣物種資料及採集標本典藏。針對高雄、屏東縣市沿海地區進行底棲微藻藻類調查,建立藻種及棲地環境資料庫。另外為瞭解友善農作是否對梯田水生植物多樣性有正面的影響,將在臺灣各地梯田進行調查水生植物調查,並選定樣點進行友善農法與慣行農法之差異比較。 臺灣植物紅皮書受威脅物種保育之研究 (一)針對臺灣「植物紅皮書」中所列的物種名錄,以其瀕危程度及受保護與否為評估標準,進行分析,建立種原蒐集及保存的優先順序名錄,並以上述名錄,進行植物種子的蒐集及保存工作,同時建立植物種子保存之標準作業流程。(二)藉由開放資料的蒐集及彙整,透過地理資訊系統、數學學理與統計方法,建立一物種適宜棲地推估模式,並以臺灣維管束植物紅皮書列為易受害等級物種為目標,模擬IPCC第5次評估報告所定義之RCP氣候變遷情境下,物種將來可能的分布範圍變化,期可供野生生物棲地保育與經營管理之參考。(三)生物多樣性公約簽訂以來,全球對於生物多樣性的保育日益重視,至2010年生物多樣性消失的速度不但未能獲得有效的減緩,環境所面臨的危機甚至更為加劇。而有鑑於全球生物多樣性仍快速流失,世界各地稀有及受威脅植物物種近年來愈來愈多,近年來生物技術工具提供了生物多樣性保育新的途徑與方法,而體外培養技術應用於拯救和保育受威脅植物非常有用且有相當多成功的實際案例;此外,體外培養可更有效地應用於提高生物量和遺傳資源的保育,特別是受威脅植物野外族群因天然生殖能力受限或他種因素造成物種數量減少時,除在採樣上不破壞或消耗野外原生地之族群,且生產出均一且數量多之植物材料可減輕對自然族群減少之壓力。針對紅皮書稀有等級植物臺灣破傘菊、水社柳與紫苞舌蘭進行後續種質保存、作為未來永續保育之用途。(四)臺灣破傘菊繁殖體系之建立與種質保存之研究,可節省瀕絕物種移地保育之空間、降低保育成本與減少自然災害及生物因子危害,有效提昇繁殖效率,確保臺灣植物資源的遺傳及物種多樣性,並期進一步應用在瀕臨絕滅物種之復育再引回與植物永續利用。藉由清查中心與中北部地區域外烏來杜鵑植栽種源與遺傳變異組成,瞭解烏來杜鵑目前種原保存現況,進一步評估與擬定此物種後續保育復育措施。
英文摘要 Taxonomy of Araliaceae and Systematics of Setaria, Palyonology of vascular plants in Taiwan Firstly, according to Flora of Taiwan, there are ten genera, seventeen species and one variety of the family Araliaceae in Taiwan. We are going to study the taxonomy of Ariliaceae in Taiwan, including literature review and nomenclature analyses. Morphological descriptions, distribution, specimen and ecological data of the species will be given and uploaded to the database of the institute. Thirdly, there are eleven species of the grass genus Setaria in Taiwan. Due to the small genome size, diploidy, short life cycle, Setaria italica and Setaria viridis have become the new model species for C4 photosynthesis researches. We are going to produce molecular barcodes and construct the phylogeny of the Setaria species in Taiwan. In addition, the population genetic structure will be elucidated with the SSR markers. Fourthly, palynology is the study about the spores and pollens of plants. Pollen grains contain the highly reduced male gametophytes and share many homologies with the spores of mosses and ferns. Usually, the pollens of dicots are tricolpate rather than the monocolpate ones of monocots. It is not difficult to distinguish. We are going to describe the morphology of pollens and spores of vascular plants in Taiwan with scanning electron microscope. Investigation and physiology research of wildplants – Fern, Mycorrhiza, Lichen, Algae and plants of terrace The project aims to establish Taiwan's species distribution and its biology basic information by investigating aquatic plants, ferns, mycorrhizal fungi and algae species, the results will provide environmental monitoring, habitat rehabilitation and reference to species management. The contents included the differences in the environmental adaptability of the two ferns Diplazium donianum and Archangiopteris somai , and observed and recorded their life history with an optical microscope. The results could provide rare fern -Archangiopteris somai conservation and habitat maintenance reference, in addition to its life history of the physical observation can also be the biological materials. At the same time we will investigate the mycorrhizal fungi in limestone wasteland in west Taiwan and establish the basic database of mycorrhizal fungi composition in special habitats to realize the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the regeneration of limestone wasteland. Establishment of species information of fruticose lichens in high-altitude area of central Taiwan and specimen collection. A survey was conducted on the algae of benthic microalgae in the coastal areas of Kaohsiung and Pingtung counties, and the algae and habitat database was established. In addition, in order to find out whether eco-friendly agriculture has a positive impact on terrestrial aquatic plant diversity, it is proposed to select terraced fields in Taiwan to investigate the aquatic plants and to compare the differences between eco-friendly agriculture and conventional farming methods. We will conduct conservation assessments for rare plants. The red list and conservation actions of threatened plants in Taiwan 一、Based on the red list of Taiwanese vascular plants, we will to evaluate the list, according its level of endangered and protected or not, to decide the priority of germplasm, to establish the standard operate procedures about seeds collection and conservation. Finally, to collect the seeds and preserves it.二、This program will collect open data of species to develop a habitat suitability model based on geographic information system, mathematics and statistics. The species of target are vulnerable and chosen by a preliminary red list of Taiwanese vascular plants. We then may simulate the spatial extents of the species according to four Representative Concentration Pathways from the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report. Our results can provide an insight into the wildlife conservation and habitat management.三、Endangered plants in Taiwan today remain subject to a multiplicity of threats in their natural habitats and, in addition to the usual suspects habitat loss, illegal collecting and climate change. These situation indicate that conservation measures are a matter of urgency. Plant conservation programs must be carried out. According to the A Preliminary Red List of Taiwanese Vascular Plants, Syneilesis intermedia, Salix kusanoi and Spathoglottis plicata. The specie’s narrow distribution and vulnerability to disturbance make it an urgent case for conservation researches. Different strategies including the use of in vitro techniques. In this technique of reducing the risk of genetic drift and somaclonal variation. In addition to this technique can effectively enhance the conservation of endangered plants and also preserve these plant species and maintain genetic diversity. This study could be used as a reference for endangered plants propagation, germplasm preservation, and restoration in Taiwan.
其他研究人員 張和明 黃朝慶 林子超 呂明倫 李麗華 陳志輝 黃朝卿 沈明雅 翁韶良 何東輯 張麗慧 沈秀雀 王經文 李權裕
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