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政府計畫
計畫名稱(中文) 生物多樣性永續利用研究
計畫名稱(英文) The study of biodiversity and sustainab
文獻分類 其它
計畫編號 106農科-11.9.4-子-W1
計畫主辦人 何健鎔
計畫主管機關 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構 行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心經營管理組
全程計畫年 2017年 ~ 2017年
中文關鍵字 救援醫療;超低溫保存;臺灣生物多樣性網絡;安息香科;遺傳物質;鼬獾;肺纖維化;原生植物;秋冬螢火蟲;標本;生態旅遊;瀕危植物;食性;化學分類;野生動物急救站
英文關鍵字 rescue and medicine;Cryopreservation;Taiwan Biodiversity Network, TBN;Styracaceae;genetic material;Ferret Badger;pulmonary fibrosis;native plants;autumn and winter occurred firefly;specimen;ecotourism;endangered plants;diet;phytochemical classification;wi
中文摘要 野生物標本典藏之管理與應用 特生中心已典藏各類野生動植物標本及其遺傳物質,本計畫的主要目標在於持續收集各類野生物標本,並使它們保持在最佳的標本狀態。對於乾式標本能免於發霉及蟲害,而對於溼式標本則在避免樣本變質。我們也收集各類野生動物組織並建構其基因條碼,以利進一步物種鑑定或分類學等相關研究之用。這些野生物標本及遺傳物質的收集是生物學研究的基礎,同時也可提供相關解說教育活動之運用。 野生動物救援及醫療之研究 本計畫將進行特生急救站之傷病分析以及病例探討,用以瞭解國內野生動物傷病原因及動物疾病狀況;蒐集因傷病死亡與道路致死之鼬獾屍體,鑑定胃內含物種類,藉以瞭解鼬獾食性提供口服疫苗餌料選擇之參考;並進行實際圈養繁殖以建立國內鼬獾繁殖生理和年齡評估資料,對狂犬病防疫工作有重要的參考價值。 野生物多目標利用及開發之研究 生物多樣性強調「各國對其生物資源擁有主權權利」,發展生物技術,將傳統生活方式中對生物多樣性保護之努力與生物資源永續利用之經濟目標相連結,期使生物資源保育成果能促進當地經濟發展。臺灣獨特地理環境,孕育出多樣之野生物資源,如何藉由系統性研究,增進人類健康福祉並維繫生物資源永續利用,為本計畫宗旨,本計畫擬探討下列五項議題: 1.目前肺纖維化的治療除了器官移植之外,主要是以免疫調節劑及等免疫抑制劑來減緩纖維化的進程,然而效果都不盡理想,無法有效治療,導致肺纖維化的五年存活率偏低,使得肺纖維化常被認為是一種不治之症。藉由跨領域合作研究,建立原生植物萃取活性成分,抗纖維化細胞篩選及評估資料,做為抗肺纖維化發展之潛力原生物種參考依據。 2.以植物體二次代謝化學成分做為指標對台灣產安息香科進行分類研究;亦可利用生物活性篩選平台探索台灣產安息香科植物成分所具有的醫療保健潛能。 3.生物技術工具提供了生物多樣性保存新的途徑與方法,超低溫保存技術在過去20幾年發展以來,對於生物材料長期保存是重要且有價值的方法。故本計畫擬利用超低溫保存技術結合體外培養技術針對5種臺灣瀕危植物進行種原保存,可望成為保存植物種質最佳方法及維護生物多樣性外,進而提供未來利用的機會,確保生物多樣性的保存與永續利用。 4.臺灣具有豐富的螢火蟲資源,春夏間的賞螢活動已是當前熱門的夜間生態旅遊活動之一;此外,秋冬季節發生之螢火蟲種類,廣布於全台1,000~3,000之山區,不論在觀賞感受、景觀及特性等皆有其獨特性,極具發展生態旅遊之潛力,但其種類、發光特性及其分布等仍有待進一步調查。本計畫擬調查中高海拔之螢火蟲,掌握該段螢火蟲之種類及確切發生時間,評估高山螢火蟲的觀賞之可行性,開創新的生態旅遊之產業,並加以應用及推廣。 5.調查建立臺灣原生綠化植物適植環境與物候資料,供各界綠化參用,改善居住環境,並期適地適種,以節約綠化植物更新維護經費及人力。 臺灣野生物資料庫之經營管理 本中心之「臺灣野生物資料庫」包含生物多樣性網絡、臺灣野生動物資料庫、臺灣野生植物資料庫,分別推廣民眾使用上傳生物照片及蒐集本中心生物資源調查資料及標本影像,系統建置調校並推廣至今已逾5載,累積生物紀錄筆數逾430,000餘筆,照片10,000餘張,系統使用人次每年達20%之成長。為使生物資料庫永續經營,本計畫目標包含:維持系統功能正常、建立資料新增及更新機制、強化臺灣野生物資料庫管理機制、持續累積生物資料。以提供整合生物多樣性之調查研究資料,可讓研究人員應用於氣候變遷或其它生物多樣性相關之研究,並形成瞭解生物多樣性相關知識的便捷管道,使民眾參與生物多樣性資料調查,體驗觀察及參與生物多樣性活動之樂趣。
英文摘要 Managements and applications of wildlife specimens There are many kinds of wildlife specimens and genetic materials in the collection of Endemic Species Research Institute (ESRI), Taiwan. The major aims of this project are continuous to collect wildlife specimens and keep them in the best condition from fungus or pest damage for dry specimens and from denaturation for wet specimens. We also collect wildlife tissues to construct their genetic codes for advanced studies, such as species identification or classification. The specimen and genetic information are the bases of biology researches and also offer the use of ecological education activities. The study of wildlife rescue and medicine in Taiwan The aim of this project is to collect the data which will be valuable to control the rabies in Taiwan. There are three major missions in this project as following: (1) Analyze and evaluate the data collected from medical services in Wildlife First Aid Station at ESRI to understand the causes and varieties of wildlife injury and death in Taiwan; (2) Analyze the gastric content of Formosan ferret-badger corpses collected from road kill and died cases of illness to give the information for bait choice study; (3) Captive and breed wild Formosan ferret-badgers to establish the basic data regarding to reproduction and age evaluation. Studies on wildlife utilization and development of multi-objective Biodiversity emphasized that "States have sovereign rights over their biological resources", the development of Biotechnology, the traditional way of life in the efforts for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of biological resources is linked to the economic objectives, results of conservation of biological resources promote local economic development. Unique geographical environment of Taiwan develop high diversity of wildlife resources. Through the systematic study for green roof, eco-tourism, health and other effective development and utilization improve human health, well-being and maintain sustainable use of biological resources. The aims of this project as following. 1.To screen functional ingredients of endemic or medicial native plants for anti-pulmonary fibrosis In addition to the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis by organ transplantation, immunomodulator and immunosuppressive agents are also used to slow the process of fibrosis. However, can not lead to an effective treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Because pulmonary fibrosis five-year survival rate is low that it is often considered an incurable disease.2.Plant secondary metabolites were used the targets for classification of Styracaceae and to explore the medical treatment and health care potentials of composition of Styracaceae via biological activity screening platform.3. Cryopreservation is a part of biotechnology as an important role in international plant conservation programs and in preservation of the world genetic resources. Advances in biotechnology provide new methods for plant genetic resources and evaluation. Cryopreservation, developed during the last 29 years, is an important and the most valuable method for long-term conservation of biological materials. In vitro methods can be applied to collecting tissues and establishing cultures as a source of tissue for cryopreservation. In vitro technique and cryopreservation can effectively enhance the conservation of endangered plants and also preserve these plant species and maintain genetic diversity. This study could be used as a reference for endangered plants propagation, germplasm preservation, and restoration in Taiwan.4. There are rich firefly resources in Taiwan, and firefly watching activities during the spring and summer has been held as one of the most popular night-time ecoturism. Moreover, it still occurs several winter species widely distributed in the mountainous area of the island 800~3,500m in Taiwan. In spite of the species, distribution and luminescence characteristics need further investigated, regardless of viewing experience, luminous view had its unique characteristics and great potential for development of ecotourism. 5.25 species of Taiwan native plants will be selected and completed for suitable grow environmental and phenology.Results will be for greening references, and people living environment should be improving. The plants can grow at suitable place that will expect economizing plant maintenance and manpower requirements. Management and Operation of Database for Wildlife in Taiwan "Taiwan Wildlife Database in Taiwan" of TESRI contains Taiwan Biodiversity Network, Taiwan Wildlife Database, Database of wild plants in Taiwan, namely the promotion of people usage to upload photos and collect images and biodiversity data of the field surveys. The information systems have been built, adjusted and operated for more than 5 years, cumulated more than 430,000 records, than 10,000 photos, and 20% increase of browsing number every year. For the sustainable development of biodiversity databases, the goal of this project include: maintaining the system functions properly, building applicable mechanism of update and correction inventory data, strengthening management policy of database system, accumulating biological information continuously. Providing integration of biodiversity data enables researchers to study the climate-change relevant issues or biological questions. Forming a convenient portal of understanding biodiversity knowledge lets people involved in biodiversity survey experience the fun of nature observation.
其他研究人員 鄭錫奇 張麗慧 詹芳澤 黃秀雯 林桂賢 李權裕 林春富 周寬基 柯智仁 張和明 羅英元 蔡奇立 張慧玲 沈秀雀 林彥博 張仕緯 沈明雅 許再文 朱汶偵 朱恩良 陳建名 姚正得 楊嘉棟 林斯正 楊育昌 陳元龍 沈慧萍
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